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5th grade cram

Absorb to take in or soak up, dark objects _______ light and heat
adaptation a change in an organism that helps it survive in its environment
air pressure the weight of the air above an area, barometers measure ___ ________
algae single-celled plantlike organism that produce huge amounts of oxygen
amoeba a single-celled blob-like member of Kingdom Protista
amphibian a group of vertebrates with moist skin, they spend part of their life underwater
amplitude measures how high or low a wave is
anemometer measures wind speed, "mom" says don't go out when its windy without a coat
Aristotle believed our solar system was "Earth-centered"
atom the smallest bit of matter, made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons
bacteria smallest, most primitive living things, single-celled, no organelles, Kingdom Monera
balance an instrument that compares the mass of two objects
behavioral adaptation a change in an organisms behavior to help it survive, porcupine rolling up in a ball when threatened, birds flying south for the winter
Benjamin Franklin discovered that lightening was a form of static electricity
carbon dioxide a compound needed by plants for photosynthesis: 1 carbon & 2 oxygen
cell the smallest unit of living things
chemical change a change that results in something new, cannot easily be undone: burnt toast
chlorophyll the green pigment in plants used for photosynthesis
circumference the distance (perimeter) around a circle
cirrus high wispy clouds
climate the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
closed circuit an electrical circuit must be closed for electricity to flow
community Populations of species that live in the same place at the same time together
compound two or more elements held together by chemical bonds: NaCl, CO2, H2O
compression the part of a sound wave where the molecules of matter are packed closely together
concave a lens or mirror that is wider on the edges and thinner in the middle
conclusion a summary statement based on the results of an investigation, they are based on facts
condense to change from a gas to a liquid
conductor a material that easily transmits electricity or heat
constant something in an experiment that does NOT change
consumer an organism that eats other organisms
continental rise part of the ocean floor just below the continental slope, it is there because of landslides
continental shelf the shallow part of the ocean floor near the shore, there is much life there because sunlight reaches the bottom there
continental slope the steep "drop-off" from the continental shelf to the deep ocean
contract to become smaller
convergent boundaries where two tectonic plates are moving together: trenches, mountains, and volcanoes from here
convex a lens or mirror that is wider in the middle and thicker at the edges
Copernicus and Galileo believed that the sun was the center of our solar system
core the center part of the earth made up of solid iron and nickel
crust the thin, rocky, outer layer of the earth
cumulonimbus dark, stormy clouds
cumulus clouds that are fluffy and white with flat bottoms. They usually indicate fair weather.
current the river-like movement of water in the ocean
decomposer organisms like bacteria, fungi, and worms that break down dead organisms
density how tightly or loosely packed matter is
deposition when sediment is placed by water, wind, or gravity
dispersion when light waves pass through a prism, the rays are spread out or dispersed
dissolve when a solid mixes completely in a liquid to form a solution
divergent boundaries when two tectonic plates move apart from each other: mid-ocean ridges are formed here
dogwood the state tree of Virginia
dormancy a period of inactivity: volcanoes and plants can be dormant
earthquake the shaking or moving of the earth's crust do to tectonic movement
echo a reflected sound wave bouncing off of a hard, smooth surface
ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) together with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system
electromagnet Wrapping wire around certain iron-bearing metals (iron nail) and creating a closed circuit is an example of a simple _____________.
electron the smallest subatomic particle, negative (-) charge
element the pure and simple substance that cannot be broken down any farther
embryo The embryo within the seed begins as a single cell, the zygote. The basic organs of the plant body can be found in the embryo.
erosion the carrying away of sediment due to weathering
evaporation the state change from a liquid to a gas without high heat
expand to become bigger, when water freezes into ice, it expands
extinct when a species of organisms finally die out
Fahrenheit the temperature scale for which 32 degrees is freezing and 212 degrees is boiling
fault a break in the earth's surface, earthquakes often occur here
ferns a group of plants that reproduce with spores instead of seeds
filament the thin metal wire in a light bulb that glows when hot
focus the place that an earthquake begins
force a push or pull on an object
fossil the ancient remains of a plant or animal
frequency the number of times a wave passes a certain point in a certain amount of time
fresh water water containing very little dissolved salt, found in lakes, streams and rivers
friction the force that creates heat when two objects rub against another
front the boundary between air masses of different temperature and humidity
fungus a kingdom of living things that absorb food from dead or dying organisms: mushrooms, molds, yeast, mildew
Galileo helped to invent and make the telescope better
geologist a scientist who studies the earth and rocks
granite an igneous rock found under the continents
Gulf stream current a warm water current that travels by the east coast of the U.S.
habitat the place, or kind of place, in which an animal or plant naturally lives. An organism’s _______ provides food, water, shelter, and space
hibernate when an organism sleeps for long periods of time in the winter months
humidity the amount of moisture in the air which is measured by a hygrometer
hypothesis a prediction about the relationship between variables. A hypothesis is an educated guess/prediction about what will happen based on what you already know and what you have already learned from your research. It must be worded so that it is ―testable.‖
igneous Rock type formed from cooled lava or magma
inference a possible explanation based on background knowledge and available data
instinct something that an organism does without thinking, it is inborn
insulator a material that does not transmit electricity or heat easily
invertebrate an animal without a backbone
kilogram a metric measure of mass that is equal to about 2 pounds
kinetic energy the energy of motion
lava hot, molten rock that has been erupted to the surface of the earth
leaf the part of the plant where photosynthesis takes place
lens a curved glass object that bends, or refracts, light
light a form of energy that travels from the sun to earth in waves
lightening a form of static electricity found in the atmosphere
limestone a sedimentary rock formed from ancient sea shells
liquid one of the three states of matter that has a definite volume, but no definite shape
magma hot, molten rock that is found under the earth's surface
mammal a group of vertebrates that are warm-blooded, have fur, and produce milk
manipulate to change or alter
mantle the middle layer of the earth made mostly of molten rock
marble a metamorphic rock prized for its beauty, used in statues and countertops
mass the amount of matter in an object
matter anything that has mass and takes up space (volume)
melting point the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
membrane a thin covering that allows certain materials in and out
mercury the only element that is a metal and a liquid
metamorphic Rock type that has been "changed" by high heat and pressure under the earth's surface
metamorphosis when something undergoes a dramatic "change"
meteorologist a scientist who studies and reports the weather
meter a metric measure of length that is about equal to one yard
Michael Faraday invented the electric motor
microscope a scientific instrument that allows us to see very small objects
mixture a combination of two or more compounds that can be separated easily
mold a type of fungus that grows on living things, often found on old bread
molecule the very smallest bit of a compound
molten when something is hot and melted
monera the kingdom of living things that includes the bacteria
moss a non-vascular plant that grows near moisture
nano one billionth of something 1 / 1,000,000,000,000
nano-technology the field of technology that specializes in very small devices
neutron the subatomic particle with no charge
niche the function that an organism performs in the food web of that community. A _____ also includes everything else the organism does and needs in its environment. No two types of organisms occupy exactly the same _____ in a community.
observation something that you can tell from your senses
ocean a major body of salt water
opaque an object that does not allow any light to pass through it
open circuit an circuit that electricity will not flow through because it is open, or broken
orbit a curved path an object takes through space
organ system a group of organs that work together to perform a job
organism an individual living thing
parallel circuit an electrical circuit in which if one light goes out, the others still work
paramecium a single-celled protist that has hair-like structures that beat like oars
photosynthesis the process by which plants make their own food using sunlight and chlorophyll
phyto-plankton plant like single-celled organisms in the ocean that provide most of earth's oxygen
pistil the female reproductive part of the plant: Pistil packing momma
pitch the highness or lowness of a sound that is related to frequency
plankton single-celled organisms that are the basis of the ocean food chain
plant kingdom organisms that do not move from place to place, and make their own food using photosynthesis
pollen produced by the stamen, it fertilizes the pistil
pollination the transfer of pollen to the pistil by wind or insects
pollution unwanted materials that can harm or damage the environment
population All the organisms of the same species that live in the same place at the same time
potential energy the energy an object has because of its position
predict to make an educated guess about what will happen in the future
prism a glass pyramid that separates light into the colors of the rainbow
producer organisms, such as plants, that make food and are consumed
protist organisms that are microscopic, single-celled, and can be animal-like or plant-like
proton the subatomic particle in the nucleus that has a positive (+) charge
protozoa animal-like protists
rain gauge a weather instrument that measures rainfall
rainbow a visual effect when drops of water disperse white light into the colors of the visible spectrum
rarefaction the part of a sound wave where the molecules of matter are loosely packed together
reflect when light bounces off of a shiny, smooth object
refract when light bends because it is passing through glass or water
repel to push apart
reproduce to create offspring
reptile a group of vertebrates that have dry, scaly skin
revolution to make a trip around
revolve to spin on its axis
root the part of the plant that takes in water and nutrients from the soil and anchors the plant to the ground
roy g biv red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet (the colors of the visible spectrum)
salinity the saltiness of water
saltwater water with many dissolved salts (sodium chloride)
sediment the tiny bits of rock and dirt that wash into streams and rivers
sedimentary Rock type formed by layers of sediment at the bottom of ancient lakes or oceans
seed the part of the plant that is produced in the ovary, and will become a new plant
sepal the protective leaflets at the base of the flower
series circuit an electrical circuit where if one light goes out, they all go out
sodium chloride NaCl, table salt
solid the state of matter with a definite shape and a definite volume
solution a mixture in which one substance is dissolved into another
sound wave a compressional wave in which matter vibrates and bumps into neighboring matter
spore the microscopic seed-like reproductive cell for fungi, ferns, and moss
stamen the male part of the flower that produces the pollen
static electricity an electrical charge created by rubbing two objects together
stem provides support for the plant and has tubes for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant
telescope a scientific device using two or more lenses to make distant objects appear close
thermal energy energy felt as heat
thermometer an instrument that measures heat energy in the atmosphere
tidal wave another word for tsunami
tides the regular rise and fall of the ocean level due to the gravitational pull of the moon
transform boundaries a place where two tectonic plates slide past each other, often causing earthquakes
translucent matter that allows some light to pass through, but not all
transparent matter that allows all light to pass through it, you can see clearly through it
trough the low point on a wave
variable something that can change
vascular plants plants with tubes and ducts to carry water and nutrients throughout the plant
vibration the rapid back and forth motion of matter
visible spectrum all of the light energy that we get from the sun that we can see with our eyes (roy g biv)
volcano a place on earth where magma bubbles up from underneath the earth's crust
watershed an area of land drained by a particular river
wave the way in which energy moves
wavelength the distance on a wave measured from one crest to another
weathering the breaking down of rock by water, ice, wind
weight measures the pull of gravity on an object
zoo-plankton all the plankton that does not get its energy from photosynthesis, but by somehow eating other organisms
Created by: PRO Teacher lit123