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Architect Midterm 2

Ch.10 Mesopotamia, Egypt, Ancient Near East and Ch.2 Commodite (Function)

Roth says the word function is too limited and we need other words to describe different kinds of function. what are those 2 words? circulatory function or acoustical function
Who wrote the epigraph saying the 3 fundamental elements of architecture Vitruvius
The opera house in Paris by Charles Garnier describes what kind of function? circulatory function - to facilitate and accommodate movement throughout the space
architecture is more than functional utility. what does Roth say it is? the vessel that inescapably shapes human life
The geography of Egypt and Mesopotamia are very different. what is the main difference The Nile is predictable every year and the Tigris/Euphrates Rives is unpredictable
Mesopotamians used what distinctive building material Bitumen or asphalt
the most important legacy of Mesopotamia is what? concepts of civil life and the rule of law
even when Mesopotamian buildings were sponsored by kings they still embodied what? public communal purpose
what did Egyptians call their river? a word meaning black
to the Egyptians, things were never as good as they were at what time? the time of Creation
What did King Menes do? unite upper and lower Egypt. he is not the founder of the Old Kingdom however
what are the seasons of Egypt? Inundation, emergence of the fields from the water, and drought
what distinguishes Egyptian architecture over the years the deliberate resistance to change
Who built the Great Pyramids at Giza willing laborers
when were the great pyramids plundered by the time of the Middle Kingdom
Egyptian Temples were more than places of worship what other purpose did they serve? home and training grounds for administration that ran Egypt.
who designed Temple of Hatshepsut? Senmut
what unique item did temple of hatshepsut have in it that she got from land of punt myrrh trees
Describe plan of artisan house at Deir el Medina reception room w/ shrine of household god Bes-main room w/ palm tree-small bedroom- kitchen-cellar
Basic elements of architectural design Utility, Firmness, Beauty
2nd fundamental triad of architecture Client, architect, builders
Definition of function pragmatic utility of an object
beauty automatically results from what? function
all purpose space a building can be used as anything
utilitarian function every room has a distinct purpose
circulatory function space should facilitate movement easily through the space
symbolic function the buildings appearance should follow its function
how does one achieve symbolic function invent original forms, devise appropriate new symbolic representations for the functions that the structure houses
psychological and physiological functions designing based on a feeling you want building or room to have
where is the first place people began raising their food Ancient Near east
what major things were invented in ancient near east? the wheel, money, writing
What are the 4 locations of the ancient near east Palestine (Israel), Anatolia (Turkey), Mesopotamia (Iraq), Persia (iran)
What is the fertile crescent Top of Nile through Mediterranean sea down to bottom of Tigris and Euphrates river
What civilizations are northern mesopotamia Assyria, Persia
what civilizations are in southern mesopotamia Sumer, Babylonia
2 major natural resources in southern mesopotamia mud and asphalt or bitumen
what building materials are found in mesopotamia mud, bitumen, fired brick, sun dried brick
what material are the walls of Babylon made of? fired brick
what are the 2 special qualities of fired brick that stone does not have prefabricate it - make it beforehand. lighter than stone.
What 4 great cities arose in Ancient world? what do they have in common Mesopotamia. Egypt. China. Pakistan and India. All arose on rivers
What are the 8 collectibles that we want to see throughout ancient near east buildings 1.city 2.wall 3.fired brick 4.4 sided building 5.portal with 2 towers and an arch 6.guardian animals 7.temple 8.palace
purpose of ziggurat elevate temple to provide a link between human realm and heavenly realm of the gods
what writing form did sumerians develop cuneiform
what civilization overran sumerians akkadians
what was most significant change of akkadian period toward a strong priestly class and rule by a single warrior king
during which civilization did ziggurat construction expand neo-sumerian
what is the statue of Gudea holding , why is it relevant? a plaque with the inscribed plan of a building. comparing it to Zigguat of Nannar, did not weather away because it had thick outer walls
who was neo-babylonia restored by and what civilization took over Nebuchadnezzar II and took over Assyrians
describe Hanging gardens, what culture is it from? Neo-Babylonia. ziggurat like arched structure supporting terraces heavily planted with trees. water plants using euphrates river. made with fired brick and bitumen
What is the influence of ancient Mesopotamian cultures concepts of civil life and rule of law. writing, wheel, tragic poignancy of human existence.
Sumerians invented what cultural patterns that have lasted thousands of years? [thesis] architectural patterns, writing (cuneiform), cities, ziggurat, wheeled vehicle
What is the 2nd historical pattern and change made by Sumerians? change from city-states governed by temples to empires in the hands of a ruler who claimed divine power aka Divine Right of Kings
what civilization do we usually compare Mesopotamia with Egypt
where is the birthplace of fired brick southern mesopotamia
What year was Sumerians in power? Semites? Sumerian: 3500 BC-2000 BC. Semites: 2000 BC-500 BC
what are the parts of the Ziggurat of Uranamu ziggurat. courtyard. broad room plan (babylonian plan)
What is a broad room plan or babylonian plan walk in wide space and straight ahead is throne
law code of Hammurabi was written using what? what civilization cuneiform. Babylon. received his power from the gods
In Israel and Judah how many temples were there and which one was the greatest? [thesis] 3 temples, 1st one was greatest
What is the vast impact of the Hebrews based on? [thesis] Ideas and thoughts, not buildings nor artifacts
First Temple (who built it, what is it used for, where is it, date) King Solomon, major Hebrew shrine-symbol of major Jewish culture, Jerusalem Israel, M10C BC
What were the 2 columns called on the front of King Solomon's first temple? Boaz (means in its strength) and Jaken (means he shall establish)
Where can we see a description of King Solomon's temple? Holy Bible, Kings 6-7
Who are semites? Arabic or Hebrew people. came after Sumerians. the Akkadians, Hittites, Babylonians
what are keruvims? where can they be found Fantastic winged creatures found on King Solomon's temple 1
what civilization does King Sargon II belong to? Assyria
Where is King Sargon's Palace located? Located in Dur-Sharrukin, Khorsabad, Iraq
what is palace of king sargon used for? government office building. ziggurat is on side of it so that religion enforces king's power
what civilization does King Solomon belong to? Israel and Judah
syrian arch Assyrian Arch that is resting on Lamasus or good demon. comes from Hittite Empire -Lion Gate at Hattusas, Turkey
Lamasus Assyrian. good demon, human headed bulls or lions. put monsters on doorways to ward off evil
Plaque of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh, Iraq shows an example of what? Dining while reclining.
Nebuchadnezzar is a part of what civilization? Neo-Babylonia
Describe streets of Babylon inside Ishtar gate Urban design, wide straight roads, Euphrates river travels through area
what is Mushshushu, where is it located? furious serpent decorated on walls of Babylon on Temple of Marduk
3 basic patterns on Babylon walls 1. representations of Real animals and monsters 2. Heraldic symmetry (face to face, butt to butt) 3. infinite stretchability
Darius and Xerxes are rulers of what civilization? Persians
twice in the near east we see nomadic people quickly turn into what? what 2 civilizations [thesis] Thriving civilization, suddenly created an empire and achieve monumental architecture. Persians and 7th c Islamic architecture
what is persepolis city of Persia, Iran. capital city
The winged bulls carved on stone in Persian empire were inspired by who? what is the difference between the two? Assyrians, except persians had 4 legs and assyrians had 5 legs
What 2 architectural elements are uniquely Persian? Hall of 100 columns and post and lintel construction with bulls heads atop facing away from each other
What direction does Nile flow south to north
2 great determinants of Egyptian culture Nile and the Sun
What kind of materials do Egyptians have rich in natural resources and every kind of mineral. colorful stones
why were egyptians rarely invaded? what impact did that have? protected on east and west by desert. people were very secure and prosperous, they believed in life after death
What side of the Nile did Egyptians live? bury the dead? [thesis] East-living West-dead
Ka our spiritual twin. separate from us in life, at death Ka would be reunited with the body to survive. Needed food and drink and a statue to survive
Ba occurs when Ka reunites with the body. leaves the tomb and travels by day. at night returns to body
Akh lived in the sky (realm of the gods)
All Egyptian tombs have what? underground burial chamber, on top could be a superstructure to protect corpse
what are the 2 functions of egyptian tombs [thesis] protect the body, make a way for spirit to get offerings
what does mastaba mean arab word for bench
purpose of mastaba served to protect the body and make a way for spirit to get offerings
serdab place where Ka statue is located
What is on the relief picture at the Tomb of Ti and Nefer-Hetep-Es Ti going hippo hunting on the Nile. hippos are very dangerous. made out of papyrus
where does the Ka go to get nourishment False doors, can give literal food, a list of food, or an image like on Ti's tomb
3 basic kinds of rock Igneous-granite, disintegrate into sediments, Sedimentary-limestone, fragile can be pressurized into marble, Metamorphic-marble
Pyramid of Zoser emerged from what? [thesis] mastaba, 1st egyptian pyramid to grow from mastaba
what architectural structure marks the turning point towards fine architecture? [thesis] Stepped Pyramid of Zoser
architect of stepped pyramid of zoser Imhotep
Stepped pyramid of zoser marks turning point of what? [hint: materials] soft materials--> hard materials
what is heb-sed one man olympic ceremony to prove that Zoser could continue to rule. located on right side of Stepped pyramid of zoser
what are the 5 features of old kingdom pyramid 1.pyramid 2.walled courtyard 3. temple at eastern base of pyramid 4. causeway 5. valley temple-body of king is deposited here before taken to tomb
Pyramids of Giza- 3 kings Khufu, Khafre, Menkare
what materials was on the tip of the pyramids of giza limestone and sometimes gold
which pyramid at Giza was capped with gold Khufu
What alteration did they make to the inside of Khufu's pyramid? raised burial chamber 3x so it is now in the middle of the pyramid. Ba can now move about in the day
What are the comparisons of the american dollar to pyramids of giza and egypt in general the eye symbolizes that God is looking down on us favorably-divine right of kings. also illuminates in the light just like the gold tip of Khufu's pyramid
what is purpose of the great sphinx of giza guard city of the dead -necropolis
what replaced mastabas in middle kingdom of Egypt ? [thesis] rock cut tombs
What temple is the most sophisticated achievement of Egyptian architecture [thesis] Temple of Hatsepshut
What do you see on plaster cast from part of a wall on temple of hatshepsut see Hatsepshut's journey to Land of Punt, carrying myrrh trees back to her temple
Created by: simmonsss