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To study for Social Studies Mesoamerica test

What is Beringia/Bering land Bridge? A land mass approx. 1000 miles long connecting Asia to North America
How was the Bering land bridge formed? During the ice age glaciers covered most of NA causing sea levels to drop and revealing a piece of land connecting Asia to NA
Currently, what is where the Bering land bridge used to be? Bering strait- separates Asia and NA
What body of water is south of Beringia? Bering Sea
What body of water is North of Beringia? Arctic Ocean
Where did the Olmec live? South and Central America in river valleys
What were two major Olmec cities? San Lorenzo and La Venta
What were the Olmec famous for? Building colossal stone heads and being the first to extract rubber from trees
What does "Olmec" mean? Rubber people
Where did the Maya live? Yucatan Peninsula in Central America
What three types of buildings did the Maya build? Pyramids, Temples, and ball courts
In the Mayan ball game, who was sacrificed at the end? The captain of the winning team
What are some Mayan contributions? Chocolate, advanced math, chicle, team sports, acoustics in pyramids and temples
What is one Aztec creation myth? The Mexicas fled to an island on Lake Texcoco because a priest had a vision where the people were supposed to look for the tenochtitli, a cactus in the lake
What is one Aztec creation myth? Prophecy that the Mexicas must settle where there iz an eagle eating a snake on a cactus and someone saw it in the middle of Lake Texcoco , someone said to settle there, possibly god
What is the name of the Aztec city? Tenochtitlan
What were the two uses of the Aztec calender? Agricultural calender and a calender for religious sacred ceremonies and stuff
Who was the main Aztec god? The sun god- Hutzilopochtli
What are some Aztec imports? Pottery, tools, jewelry, clothes, garments, etc.
What are some Aztec exports? Tropical bird feathers, cotton, cacao beans, rubber, etc.
What was the most important thing for the Aztec to do? Please the gods
Who was the Aztec god of rain? Tlaloc
Who was the Aztec plumed serpent god? Quetzecoatl
How was Aztec sacrifice of citizens performed? A priest cut open the chest and ripped out the heart of the victim
What were some contributions of the Incas? Suspension bridges, terrace farming, brain surgery, pan flute
How did terrace farming benefit the Incas? It was easier to plant and harvest crops on a flat surface than on a slope. They also had an irrigation system.
Where in the Andes mountains did the Inca spend their daily lives? 15,000 ft.
Where in the Andes mountains did the Inca preform religious ceremonies? 22,000 ft.
How did the Inca get across gorges in the mountain? They built suspension bridges
Where was the Atacama desert located? West of the Andes, East of the Pacific Ocean
Where was the Amazon rain-forest located? East of the Andes mnts.
For what did the Inca use the Amazon rain-forest? Food, fruit medicine, they never actually lived there
Even though the Inca were a rich, large empire, what innovations did they lack? No wheel, no written language
What did the Inca believe happen after one died? They went to the afterlife; mummified bodies
Who was the main Inca god? God of the sun, Inti, called themselves "children of the sun"
What was the Inca capital city? Cuzco- "naval of the world"
Who conquered the Aztecs? Cortez
When Europeans arrived and encountered Native Americans, how did they react? Traded, gave gifts, some ran or danced
For what reasons did the Europeans explore new lands? To find the new world, spices, as missionaries to convert them to christianity- Queen Isabella was very religious
Who was the Emperor of the Aztecs when they were conquered? Montezuma (2)
Who conquered the Aztec Empire? Cortez- Spanish Conquistador
Who was the Emperor of the Incas when they were conquered? Atahlualpa
Who conquered the Incas? Pizarro- Spanish Conquistador
Summarize the fall of the Aztecs Cortez visits the coast of the Yucatan peninsula while on an expedition to Cuba, he wins over local Indians, is given a woman slave, Malinche (renamed Dona Maria) and she serves as a translator/interpreter.
Continue to summarize the fall of the Aztecs Cortez has 100 sailors, 500 soldiers, and 16 horses and burns his ships so they can't leave. He makes his way into Tenochtitlan and exchanges gifts with Montezuma when he gets there. Cortez leaves and comes back three times and the third time he attacks.
How did Montezuma die? Killed in fight- don't know who. One story is that the Spanish forced him out on a terrace and the Aztec were upset that the Spanish were still staying in Tenochtitlan so they threw rocks stones and darts. Cortez said that the Aztecs stabbed him.
Summarize the fall of the Inca Pizarro lands in Peru and Sapa Inca hears about it- but small pox is spreading and kills Sapa Inca. Civil war breaks out between possible successors. Atahualpa wins, Pizarro knows he is outnumbered by Incas so he makes plans to kidnap Atahualpa.
Continue to summarize the fall of the Inca Pizarro sends priest to force Atahualpa to convert to christanity, Atahualpa disrespects bible and priest calls for Spanish to attack and absolves them of their sins. After winning the fight Pizarro kept Atahualpa for 8 months and got huge ransom.
Created by: lopiegabby