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9 weeks history test

protective tariff taxes that would make imported goods cost more than those made locally
laissez faire a policy which allowed businesses to operate under minimal government regulation
ICC a government body set up to oversee railroad operations
sherman antitrust act a bill passed in 1890 which outlawed any trust that operated "in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states"
knights of labor a labor union that included workers of any trade, skilled or unskilled
AFL a loose organization of skilled workers from many unions devoted to specific crafts or trades
Ellis island island in new york harbor that served as an immigration station for millions of immigrants arriving to the united states
angel island immigrant processing station that opened in San Francisco Bay in 1910
americanization belief that assimilating immigrants into american society would make them more loyal citizens
gilded age term coined by Mark Twain to describe the post-Reconstruction era which was characterized by a decade of prosperity
Farmers Alliance network of farmers' organizations that worked for political and economic reforms in the late 1800s
Dawes general allotment act 1887 law that divided reservation land into private family plots
gold standard using gold as the basis of the nation's currency
the grange an organization of farmers who joined to learn about new farming techniques, to call for the regulation of railroad and grain elevator rates, and to prompt the establishment of the ICC
the populist party a political party formed in 1892 on a platform of silver coinage, government ownership of the railroads, and fighting the corrupt and unresponsive elite
Matthew perry U.S. naval commander who sailed a fleet into Tokyo Bay and opened trade with Japan in 1853
social Darwinism belief that Darwin's theory of the survival of the fittest should be applied to societies, justifying imperialism
Rough riders volunteer cavalry unit assembled by Theodore Roosevelt, famous for their 1898 charge at San Juan Hill
treaty of paris ended the Spanish-american war and included U.S. acquisition of Puerto Rico and the purchase of the philippines
open door policy secretary of states john hay's policy of opposing European colonies and "spheres of influence" in China
League of Nations world organization to promote peaceful cooperation between countries
zimmerman note a telegram in which the German foreign minister proposed an alliance with Mexico against the U.S.
Henry Ford applied mass production techniques to manufacture automobiles; initiated changes that had a major impact on wages, working conditions, and daily life
Andrew Mellon secretary of the treasury under president harding; favored low taxes, a balanced budget, and less business regulation
teapot dome scandal secretary of the interior albert fall took bribes in return for leasing federal oil reserves to private companies
harlem renaissance the flowering of african american arts and literature in 1920s New York.
Oliver H. Kelley a Minnesota farmer and businessman who organized the Grange
William Jennings Bryan the Democratic nominee for president in 1896, who supported many Populist principles including silver coinage, and who toured the country to speak directly to voters
William McKinley the Republican candidate for president in 1896, who followed a traditional strategy of letting party workers campaign for him
Jim Crow laws laws that kept blacks and whites segregated
poll tax a tax which voters were required to pay to vote
literacy test a test, given at the polls to see if a voter could read, used to disenfranchise black citizens
grandfather clause a law which allowed a person to vote only if his ancestors had voted prior to 1866, also used to disenfranchise black citizens
Booker T. Washington the most famous black leader during the late 19th century, he encouraged African Americans to build up their economic resources through hard work
W.E.B. Du Bois a black leader in the late 19th century who disagreed with Washington and argued that blacks should demand full and immediate equality
Ida B. Wells an African American teacher who bought a newspaper and embarked on a lifelong crusade against the practice of lynching
Las Gorras Blancas a group of Mexican Americans who protested their loss of land in the Southwest by targeting the property of large ranch owners
Created by: mirandareese96