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African Hist Midterm

Intro,Ch.1,Ch.2 Misconceptions, Early and Later Prehistory, Ancient Egypt

what is european perspective of Africa history must be written. the only literate societies were Egypt and Ethiopians because they had heiroglyphics and Geez. lacked a history
what is African perspective of Africa preliterate societies. oral traditions (Sundiata) Learn through proverbs
what is the pseudo scientific racist thoughts? Charles Darwin's evolution theory applied to mean that whie people are superior to blacks because they have evolved more
what is the purpose of african history (african perspective) preserve communities survival. socializing agent. means to educate members of a group
What form of writing is Binyavanga Wainaina's article "How to write about Africa" satire
why did eurocentric scholarship deny the existence of african history? non literate africans preserved their histories in oral forms
what is the most important function of precolonial african history to educate members about the history, norms, and values of their society
asante molefi is well known for a form of scholarship called what? afrocentricity
what are sources of African history archaeology, comparative linguistics, oral traditions
the most important source of african history during the preliterate centuries is what? archaeology
who was a proponent of afrocentricity asante molefi and Cheikh Anta Diop
what did joseph greenberg do? classifies african languages into 4 super families. wrote Languages of Africa
factors that led to emergence of academic histories creation of colleges and universities in africa
what was the motivation or impetus for starting afrocentricity emergence of new african states. us civil rights movement
glottochronology Trace languages to proto language or original language. Joseph Greenberg used it to trace root words
Loanwords how languages have influenced each other
what are the 4 groups of language families Afro Asiatic (north). Nilo Saharan (centralish). Niger Congo (west). Khoisan (south)
What are the 3 theories of how the universe came to be? big bang theory (pangaea). Creationist theory (God). Evolution (Charles Darwin) Africa is cradle of humanity
Early Hominins ancestors of modern man - primate family. developed bipedalism
Australopithecines (who are they, how did they live, developed into what species) earliest hominins, lived as scavengers, some vegetarian, some meat eaters. developed into homo habilis, erectus, heidelberger, sapiens
Homo habilis (nickname, significant tool) Handy man, make stone tools called Oldowan
Homo erectus (significant tool, advantages) upright man, Handaxe (Acheulian), can look over grasslands to see predators and grab things with hands
Homo Heidelberger (found where, developed what,brain capacity) skull site found at Kabwe, developed speech, more complex tools. brain=modern humans
Homo Sapiens (stone technology, artistic developments, brain capacity, move where) microliths, rock paintings and engravings, migrated from africa to south asia to malaysia and australia
what is the major livelihood of prehistoric africans (what evidence do we have?) hunting and gathering- archaeological evidence in Gwisho valley and rock painitings
what was social organization of prehistoric africans small family groups, lived in caves, heavily dependent on each other, gender division of labor
What happened in Neolithic Age (when did it happen approx.) Domestication of plants and animals. Agricultural revolution 8000 BC
was the agricultural revolution an abrupt change? no, it was slow and gradual. people still hunted and gathered for major sustenance.
what is the process of agricultural revolution cultivation-->domestication of plants and animals-->emergence of farming
what is the impact of the agricultural revolution stationary lifestyle. expand their diet. family size. development of clay pottery. sophisticated tools.
how did agricultural revolution transform social organization and change the world view Social Organization - cooperation and decision making, surplus foods, specialization, emergence of classes. World View- dependent on vagaries of climate. african traditional religions
describe african traditional religions (ATR) (when did it emerge) emerged during agricultural revolution when times got hard. people prayed for fertility of land, rituals (rainmaking). animals are sacred
what are major crops of neolithic age in Africa? Sorghum and millet. wheat and barley
When did origins of farming and pastoralism happen 11,000 BC dry phase ends. 9000-6000 BC wet phases starts
Nilo Saharans domesticated which plants and animals sorghum and millets and the wild cattle
tsetse fly blood sucking insect that mediated pastoralism and determined if they could keep cattle
Evidence that pastoralism was established. where was it established Ahaggar Mts by Nilo-Saharans. rock paintings of herding cattle and black people
Afro Asiatic cushites in Ethiopian highlands domesticated what crops Tef (small seed cereal) Noog (oil plant) Ensete (starchy banana plant)
What prominent language is part of the Niger Congo language family Bantu
How was the Great Rift valley created? what is found here? Faulting, most artifacts about human evolution have been found here
Khoisan pastoralists learned herding from who? from Cushites of East Africa. never adopted farming
What main agriculture did they have in Niger Congo in West Africa yams, oil palm, kola nuts
describe Egyptian government highly centralized. pharoah had a lot of power.
what time period is ancient egypt 3000 BC early dynastic periods
what mineral resources are in Egypt Copper, malachite, gold
what king unified Egypt King Menes
what is Egyptian writing called, what is it used for? hieroglyphics in order to record taxes, seasonal and annual flow
What is the Divine Right of Kings Pharoah can rule because he claims to be the earthly incarnation of gods
What is the Egyptian opinion about life after death they believe in immortality and take every precaution to ensure immorality by mummifying kings
describe agriculture and organization of Egyptian society majority peasant farmers, small mud houses, main crops-wheat barley,flax. herded cattle, goats. heavily taxed. subject to free labor
what was the tax system like in ancient Egypt peasants have to give surplus of crops to pharoahs in form of tax
who are some of the egyptian gods amun - supreme god. aten- sun god and later creator god. osiris-god of sky. horus-sun and sky god
What did Hyksos people bring to Egypt? how and when did they takeover? 1670 BC They conquered Egypt and ruled for 100 yrs. weakened power of pharoahs with bronze weapons and horse drawn chariots. brought new way of making jewelry. cut off foreign trade
What minerals did Egypt trade with? Copper, Malachite and Gold
most important imports to egypt? Cedar wood (lebanon) spices (asia) gemstones, incense (asia)
What caused Fall of Egypt attack from Persians, Assyrians, Berbers but ultimately Greeks (332 BC) and Romans (30 BC)
Alexander the Great established what dynasty in Egypt Ptolemy (Cleopatra)
Created by: simmonsss