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7th Grade Science

Chapter 2 - Cell Structure and Function

cell theory 1. states that all living things are made of one or more cells 2. the cell is the smallest unit of life 3. all new cells come from preexisting cells
macromolecule forms by joining many small molecules together
nucleic acids are macromolecules that form when long chains of molecules called nucleotides join together (contain genetic information)
proteins are long chains of amino acids molecules (communication, transport, chemical breakdown, structural support)
lipid is a large macromolecule that does not dissolve in water (energy storage, protect membrane, communication)
carbohydrates one sugar molecule, two sugar molecules or a lone chain of sugar molecules make up carbohydrates (store energy, structural support, communication)
cell membrance is a flexible covering that protects the inside of a cell from the environment outside a cell
cell wall is a stiff structure outside the cell membrance that provides support and structure ( found only in plant cells )
cytoplasm a fluid inside a cell that contains salt and other molecules
cytoskeleton is a network of threadlike proteins that are joined together
chromosomes rod-like objects in the nucleus. Responsible for passing on traits of the cell to new cells. Normal human body has 23 pairs.
cilia short hair-like structures to help move the cell
flagella is a long tail-like appendage that whips back and forth to help move a cell
vacuoles (central) storage tank for food, water and waste products. Plants have more or larger ones than animal cells do
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) passageway that transports materials within the cell
organelle tiny organs or structures that make up the cell
chloroplasts contains a pigment called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs the sunlight to make food called glucose (a simple sugar) for photosynthesis
golgi apparatus packages proteins made from the ER into vesicles. Vesicles transport proteins where they're needed
vesicles organelles that transport substances from one area of a cell to another area.
mitochondria known as the POWER HOUSE. Energy is produced here. Also stores energy known as ATP which is used for growth, cell division and material transport.
lysosomes found in animal cells but rarely in plant cells. Breaks down and recycles part of the cell to be used again
ribosomes small organelles that make proteins. They can be found floating in the cytoplasm and attached to the ER. Made in the nucleolus
nucleolus located inside the nucleus. Site or place where ribosomes are made
nucleus directs all cell activities. Contains DNA - genetic information found inside chromosomes
prokaryotic cells cells that lack a membrane around genetic material. (no nucleus) ex: bacteria and archaea
eukaryotic cell cells that contain organelles surrounded by membrane. (nucleus) ex: some protists, fungi, plant and animals
genetic material DNA - and it controls all activities of the cell
centrioles they help the cell to divide and make more cells
envelope outer covering
function purpose for which something is used
active transport movement of substances through a cell membrane using the cell's energy
diffusion movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
endocytosis process during which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with a cell membrane
exocytosis process during which a cell's vesicles release their content outside the cell
facilitated diffusion when molecules pass through a cell membrane using transport proteins
osmosis diffusion of water molecules only through a membrane
passive transport movement of substances through a cell membrane without using energy
Created by: HOMSSeminar