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Science Review

Study Guide

Hypothesis An educated guess on the results of an experiment or observation.
Variable A variable is any item, factor, or condition that can be controlled or changed.
Controlled Variable A controlled variable is one which the researcher holds constant (controls) during an experiment.
Clinical Trial A clinical trial is any research study that includes human participants to test medicines with a placebo.
Placebo A placebo is a fake medicine that can be used during a clinical trial as the control.
Trade-Offs A trade-off is a situation that involves losing one quality or aspect of something in return for gaining another quality or aspect.
Sample Size A sample size is how many objects (humans, animals, etc.) in an experiment or observation.
Data Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.
Observation The action or process of observing something or someone carefully or in order to gain information.
Quantitaive The term quantitative refers to a type of information based in quantities or else quantifiable data.
Qualitative Descriptions or distinctions are based on some quality or characteristic rather than on some quantity or measured value.
What are the trade offs when taking a medicine? 1. You could get side effects but feel better 2. You could get ill but feel better 3. You could get better with large side effects like limbs falling off, memory loss, brain damage, and death.
What are the basic steps to the “scientific method”? 1. Ask a Question 2. Do Background Research 3. Construct a Hypothesis 4. Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment 5. Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion 6. Communicate Your Results
What are some basic factors every scientific study needs? 1. Hypothesis 2. Data 3. Sample Size 4. Experiment/Observation 5. Conclusion
What are things we need to consider when studying humans? 1. Side Effects 2. Warnings 3. A control or control group 4. Placebo
What are the functions for each part of the brain? Cerebrum: The cerebrum controls movement, speech, and vision. (5 senses) Cerebellum: The cerebellum controls the coordination of movement, posture, and balance. Brain Stem: The brain stem controls the heartbeat, blood pressure, and breathing.
What are the steps in a clinical trial? 1. Scientists make sure they have good usable data by making inferences and experiments/observations. 2. Scientists keep humans safe by reading or testing the side effects. 3. Scientists analyze data by making experiments/observations.
Created by: rchang025