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Microbiology 3

Test 3

Indigenous microflora is also known as ___ normal flora
indigenous microflora include: fungi, bacteria, protozoa, viruses
transient microflora: take up temporary residence in the body as the body is continually exposed to the external environment
what kind of MO (microorganism) are on the skin? mainly bacteria and fungi (staph and candida albicans)
what kind of MO are in the middle and inner ear? usually sterile unless there's an infection
What kind of MO are found in the outer ear and auditory canal? contain similar microbes as the nose and mouth.
How can infections in the middle ear occur? coughing or sneezing can carry the microbes into the middle ear where a possible infection may result.
why is infection of the eyes so infrequent? an intact membrane serves as a barrier and the tears contain an enzyme that destroys the bacteria
what enzyme is found in the eye? Lysozyme
what kind of MO are found in the respiratory tract? below the larynx, there are very few microbes because the mucous system "washes them" away.
What kind of MO are found in the urogenital tract? free of microbes. contains kidney, bladder, and ureters. (remember that the external opening of the urogenital tract does have microbes, though)
What kind of MO are found in the Intestinal tract? not much growth because of the acid
What kind of MO are found in the small intestine? bacteria mostly
What kind of MO are found in the large intestine? bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and fungi (over 400 different species)
In the Large intestine, most MO are ____ ____ and 10% are ____ _____. obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes
What kind of microorganisms are found in blood, lymph, organs, and spinal fluid? none, most internal tissues and organs are sterile.
what is symbiosis? dissimilar organisms living together in close proximity. (don't benefit each other)
what is mutualism? both organisms benefit and essentially depend upon each other.
what are examples of mutualism? E. Coli (lives in GI tract, produce vitamin K which is necessary for clotting) and Termites (can't survive without bacteria in their gut.)
What is parasitism? one organism benefits at the expense of the other. EX: Round worms.
what is an infectious disease? growth of a type of pathogen
What is a communicable disease? a disease that can be transmitted from one person to another. (most childhood diseases like the cold, flu)
What is a contagious disease? infectious disease EASILY passed from one to another.
What is virulence? the ability of a microbe to invade and infect a host and cause damage and produce disease.
What are virulent pathogens? microbes that cause disease easily
What is avirulent? incapable of causing disease
Virulence= infectivity + invasiveness + toxigenicity
What is infectivity? ability to infect host or protect itself against the body's defenses.
What is invasiveness? the ability to invade and multiply in the tissues
What is toxigenicity? the ability to cause damage or desrtruction to the tissue.
Virulence is a measure of ___ pathogenicity.
An infection develops when pathogens are able to ___, ___, ____, and cause ____ enter the host, attach, multiply, and cause damage to the host tissue.
what is a local infection? confined to a single area.
what is a systemic infection? covering many areas or tissures.
What is an acute disease? very rapid onset, followed by rapid recovery. (self-limiting)
What are examples of acute diseases? cold, flu
what is a chronic disease? slow onset, longer duration of recovery (if they recover at all)
What are examples of chronic diseases? TB, Hansen's Dz, Syphilis
What is a latent infection? refers to a disease that reaches a point of having no symptoms and a latent stage.
What is an example of a latent infection? herpetic lesion
what are the four phases of the course of an infection? 1-Incubation period, 2-Prodromal Period, 3-Illness period, 4- convalescent period.
what happens in the incubation period? no symptoms
what happens in the prodromal period? feel yucky, no defined symptoms
What happens in the illness period? disease presents itself, MOST CONTAGIOUS TIME
what happens in the convalescent period? recover completely, recover with disability (lyme disease), or DIE =(
What are the six reasons an infection may not occur even if the pathogen is present? 1-microbe may land in the wrong place, 2-many pathogens must attach to specific host receptor sites to be able to multiply, 3- antibacterial factors may be present that destroy or inhibit growth, 4-indigenous flora may inhibit growth (there's no room for
what are capsules, flagella, and pili? structural features that may allow microbes to attach to and or invade certain host tissues and multiply causind an infection.
capsules have the ability to attach and are anti-_____ phagocitic
flagella have the ability to be ____ mobile
pili (fimbria) can ____ and are anti-_____ attach, anti-phagocitic
what are exoenzymes? extracellular enzymes that are associated with invasiveness.
what is coagulase? forms sticky fibrin coat to prevent them from being phagocitized
What is kinase? "fibrolysin" able to dissolve clots
What is Hyaluronidase? "spreading factor"-breaks down hyaluronic acid (which holds our cells together) spreads very quickly.
What is collagenase? breaks down collagen in connective tissue. (in perio dz- breaks the junctional epithelium and epithelial attachment)
What is hemolysin? breaks down RBC
What is leukocidin? destroys WBC
What is lecithinase? destroys cell membranes of RBC
What part of the cell wall of gram negative bacteria is toxic to the host? The lipopolusaccaride (LPS)
What are exotoxins? produced inside some bacteria as part of their growth and development and released into the surrounding medium
what are cytotoxins? kills host cells at the cellular level
what are neurotoxins? interferes with normal nerve impulses
what are enterotoxins? interfere with the lining of the GI tract. (severe diarrhea)
Botulinum toxin is a ____ neurotoxin
Tetanus toxin is a ____ neurotoxin
Staphylococcus aureus is a ____ enterotoxin
Vibrio cholerae is a ____ enterotoxin
what is epidemiology? the science that deals with frequency and distribution of diseases and the factors that contribute to their spread.
What is an endemic disease? disease that is constantly present in a population or community (TB in El Paso)
What is an epidemic disease? a greater than normal number of a disease in a particular region within a short period of time (legionaires disease)
what is a pandemic disease? world-wide (HIV and AIDS)
what are the 5 modes of disease transmission? 1-person to person, 2-direct mucous to membrane contact, 3-indirectly through droplets or aerosols, 4-indirect contamination of food, water, or debris, 5-blood contamination.
what is direct transmission? one host ----> another
What is indirect transmission? food, water, or debris ----> ME
What is an autogenous transmission? to myself. mouth ----> nose
List the nonspecific lines of defense First line of defence, Second line of defence
Which are the specific (Response of the immune system)lines of defenses? Third line of defense
The bodies 3 lines of defends against: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other MO (prions)
First line of defense: Intact skin, mucous membrane and their secretions
Second Line of defense: WBC (phagocytic activity come into effect), Inflammation & fever, Antimicrobial substances in the blood
Third line of defense: Specialized lyphocytes: T-cells (cell-mediated)& B-cells (Humoral); Antibodies
Nonspecific defense refers to: defenses against ANY pathogen
Specific defense refers to: defenses against a SPECIFIC pathogen
Ingestion of a MO or any particulate matter by a cell Phagocytosis
The cells that perform phagocytosis are called: phagocytes (esentially all are WBC and derivative there of)
Blood consists of fluid called __________ which contains cells and cell fragments. Plasma (contains antibodies)
Erythrocytes (RBC-hemoglobin) transport O2 (in) and CO2 (out)
Leukocytes (WBC) Phagocytosis activity
Granulocytes:granules->contain chemical mediators to help body respond;w/in cytoplasm Neutrophils (60-70%), Basophils (0.5-1%), Esinophils (2-4%)
The nuclei of these contain two to five lobes: Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)
What is important in inflammation and allergic reactions and releases histamine? Basophils
Basophils are found in the _______ and become _____ once they are found in the tissue? Blood; Mast cells
This granulocyte is important in acute infalmmation, motile, highly phagocytic Neutrophils
This granulocyte produce toxins against parasites: Esinophils
This granulocyte is active in initial stage of infection Neutrophils
The Agranulocytes are: Monocytes (3-8%) & Lymphocytes (20-25%)
A agranulocyte responsible for swelling of Lymph Nodes due to maturation Monocytes
Monocytes circulate in blood after they leave and enter the tissue they mature into: Macrophages
This granulocyte has the ability to leave the blood and enter the infected tissue Neutrophil
Agranulocyte that occur in lymphoid tissues and play a key role in Specific Immunity: Lymphocytes
Lymphatic tissue includes: tonsils, spleen, thymus gland, thoracic duct, bone marrow, appendix, Peyers patches of the small intestine, & lymph nodes in the respiratory, gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts. They also circulate in the blood
The two types of Lymphocytes are B-Cells & T-Cells
Humoral immunity (B-cells) deactivate bacteria and viruses by producing specific antibodies
The antibodies are actually secreted by a differntiated form of B-cell: The Plama Cells
Cell mediated immunity (T-cells) attack all foreign cells
T-Cells originate in the thymus and are divided into: killer, helper, and suppressor types
Platelets: are important in Blood clotting
Wandering Macrophages are cells that have the ability to: leave the blood and migrate through tissue to infected areas
When infection occurs both _____ and ____ migrate to the infected area granulocytes (especially neutrophils) & monocytes
During migration, monocytes enlarge and develp into active phagocytic __________ Macrophages
Fixed macrophage or histocytes are described as: located in certain tissues or organs of the body
Liver Kupffer cells
Lungs Alveolar macrophages
Nervous Microglial cells
Bronchial tubes, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and the peritoneal cavity surrounding the abdominal organs
The various macrophages of the body make up the: Mononuclear phagocytic (Reticuloendothelial) System
Iatrogenic infection caused by the profession. (Ex: improper disinfection or sterilization)
Community infection dz being acquired, present upon hospitalization
Nosocomial infection acquired during hospital stay upto 14 days after discharge, staph or fungal
Which patients are more susceptible to opportunistic pathogens Sick and debilitated that have been hospitalized
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics & use of many drugs to suppress the immune system Reasons nosocomial infections have increased over the past several years
People relying on antibiotics instead of using good aseptic techniques & being precautious Reason nosocomial infections have increased over the past several years
Surgical techniques more complicated & lengthier; poorly trained staff Reason nosocomial infections have increased over the past several years
Indwelling medical devices; overcrowding of hospitals & shortage of staff Reason nosocomial infections have increased over the past several years
Bacteria most commonly associated with nosocomial infections Staphylococcus aureus & strep, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, pseudomonas
Most common infections are associated with the: Urinary tract (catheters)
Most vulnerable patients in the hospital 1. premature infants & newborns, 2. women in labor & delivery, 3. surgical & burn patients
Most vulnerable patients in the hospital 4. severely diabetic & cancer pts, 5. those recieving tx w/ steroids, anticancer, radiation
Most vulnerable patients in the hospital 6. Immunocompromised pts: lupus, AIDS,7. Dialysis
Prevention of airborne contamination 1. Cover your mouth when sneezing or coughing, 2. Limit the # of people in the room
Prevention of airborne contamination 3. Remove the dirt & dust off furniture, 4. Open up the room to fresh air & sunshine
Prevention of airborne contamination 5. when linens removed make sure they are rolled up, 6. filtration of the air
Pathogens most frequently found in food Staphlococcus (skin & dust), Clostidium botulinum (dust & air), Clostridum perfringens
Pathogens most frequently found in food Salmonella, Shigella (GI), Proteus (colon), Pseudomonas (respiratory, eyes, ears, UT)
Fomites any article or substance other than food that may harbor or tansmit microbes (bedpans, door knobs...)
Medical Asepsis exclusion of all pathogens from the immediate environment; is a CLEAN technique
Surgical Asepsis exclusion of all MO from the immediate environment; is a STERILE technique
What are the two reasons that people are placed in isolation? Prevent the spread & protect susceptible patients from exposure to pathogens
Reverse isolation (Positive air pressure): air entering the room is filtered; Protective 1. Room must be cleaned before pt admitted,2. People entering must wear mask & gowns, 3. Display proper handwashing Ex. Leukemia, burn victims, transplant pts
Reverse isolation (Positive air pressure): air entering the room is filtered; Protective AKA protective. room must be cleaned before atient enters, people entering must wear PPE's, enforce handwashing
Source isolation(Negative air pressure);air being removed from the room is filtered Patient with a contagious disease, private rooms & baths to prevent spread of pathogens (exit air gets filtered)
To determine an organisms susceptibility to an antimicrobial, a _____ test should be performed: Kirby-Bauer test
While performing the kirby-bauer test, At what temp and for what amt of time must the agar plate be incubated for the antimicrobial? 98.6 degrees and for 18 hours
While performing the kirby-bauer test, What is meant if a clear ring is around an organism after incubation? That antimicrobial (antibiotic) will kill the pathogen
The diameter of the zones of inhibition around each disc are measured in? Millimeters
These measurements determine whether the organism is? Susceptible or resistant to the various drugs tested
This group develops international regulations for disease contol & standarizaaton of drugs? WHO: World Health Organization
How are epidemics prevented and controlled? development of vaccine, gamma globulin used to boost immune system, segregate, isolate and
What type of contamination are common sources for the introduction of infection into the body contaminated food and water
List the most common infections that travelers can acquire from contaminated food & drink Escherichia coli, shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis,
Other less common infectious disease risks for travellers include: typhoid fever, other slamonelloses, cholera, rotavirus, variety of protozoan, & helminthic
Another way of infectious diseases transmit other than food & drink: Fecal-oral route
List the methods for ensuring water is safe to drink? boiling the water, chemically disinfecting it, filtering, using various combinations
What is the best method for making water safe to drink? Boiling the water will kill bacterial parasitic, and viral causes of diarrhea
What is the recommended time for water to boil vigorously? one minute & allow it to cool to room temperature, do not add ice
If the altitude is greater than 6,562 feet what is the recommended time to boil the water? 3 minutes or use chemical disinfection after water has been boiled for 1 minute
In order to kill spores how long must water boil? 5 to 10 minutes
Sea level 212 degrees F
2,000 ft. 208 degrees F
5,000 ft. 203 degrees F
7,500 ft. 198 degrees F
10,000 ft. 194 degrees F
Standard Precautions in the past was called: Universal Precautions
Contact with non-intact skin & mucous membranes, blood, & all body fluids are all Standard precautions
The exception to Standard Precautions is Sweat
The relationship between a pathogen and a human is termed? Parasitism
The relationship between Vitamin K producing intestinal flora ans a human is termed? Symbiosis
Microorganisms that normally live on or within a human are colletively called? Indigenous Microflora
Created by: Jenny teeth