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Anthropology Exam 1

Relative Dating More vague dating. Figures out what is comparatively younger/older.
Absolute Dating Measures age of site, artifact, and burial (radiocarbon dating is absolute)
Seriation Tracks stylistic changes in artifacts (pots/vase). Changes occur in a battleship pattern.
Dendrochronology Study tree rings to tell us of the past. The rings vary with climatic condition. They are used to calibrate radio carbon dates.
Law of Superposition The oldest soil stratum is on the bottom and the youngest is on the top.
Potassium/Argon Dating Tracks the decay rate of the radioactive isotope of potassium 48k into argon gas 96Ar by measuring the ratio.
Radio carbon dating Dating based on the decay rate of the radioactive isotope of carbon. Carbon-14 or 14carbon.
Pollen analysis Plant pollen is extracted from archaeological soils and identified creating a profile of changes in the abundance of various plants over time.
c3 plants/ c4 plants C3 plants, cool season grasses, trees, tubers, and most bushy plants, discriminate heavily against 13CO2. Their 813C values are more negative. C4 plants such as mare and other warm season grasses, discriminate less against 13CO2. Their 813C values r mr +
815N0/00 Plant 815N values range from 3-6 0/00 in temperate and semi arid zones where plants obtain nitrogen from soil, ammonium, or nitrates.
trophic level The position an individual occupies in the food chain. People are above corn. Nursing babies are above moms.
813C0/00 During photosynthesis plants fractionate or change the ratio of 13c/12c (813c0/00) in atmosphere co2 milunits. measured in per milunits
Charles Lyell With James Hutton, argued that the world was older than 6,000 years old. He estimated 3.5 billion. Believed that all past changes have been caused by existing causes.
Charles Darwin Proposed that new species developed from existing life forms by a process called natural selection.
Inductive Research Inductive: A general explanation is derived from specific data -data collection -pattern recognition -empirical generalization
Deductive Research A testable hypothesis is designed based on theory -theory development -> hypothesis is derived -the hypothesis is falsified or supported adding to knowledge
EB Tylor Wrote "Primitive Culture" (1877) that argued that religion had also passed through 3 stages: animism (barbarian), polytheism (multiple gods), and monotheism (civilized). Anitheism - spirits in inanimate natural "savagry"
Applied Anthropology The application of anthropological data theories, and methods to address contemporary social problems.
artifact/features Objects abandoned at sites (refuse location where it was used) Artifacts can be moved/Features cannot be moved.
Taphonomic Process Forces that alter the material remains of past human behavior. -looting -animals -environment (weathering)
Primary and secondary refuse primary: refuse that still in the location that it was used. Secondary: made up of collections of discarded materials.
LiDar Light Detection and Ranging
Uniformitarianism George Buffon (1707-1788) The process and rate of geological changes observed today have been going on for millions of years.
How old is the earth and has the earth's temperature changed over time? 4.6 byo and the earth has been warmer than the last 250m years.
when was the earth's most recent cooling event? 50 years ago
What is the modern temperature? Cooler today than the earth's history
2 forms of relative dating Seriation and dendrochology
What is
How old is the earth and have CO2 concentrations and global temperature been constant over earth’s history? 4.6byo The earth earth has been warmer than the last 250m years
When did the most recent, significant cooling event begin? 50 years ago
Is modern climate warmer or cooler than it has been over most of earth’s history? Modern climate is cooler today than the earth's history
Describe two relative dating techniques and discuss why archaeologists find them useful. Seriation (stylistic changes in pottery, etc.) and dendrochology (counting rings on trees)
Describe the principles upon which radiocarbon dating is based. What are the limitations of this dating procedure? Why are radiocarbon dates calibrated and why are they considered probability statements? radiocarbon dating is based on the decay rate of the radioactive isotope of carbon. Only useful up to 50,000 years for organic materials (bones, wood, hides, charcoal). 14C decays at a steady rate but only ceases growth when organism dies. unxpctd dcy tme
How are tree ring sequences constructed? Discuss three applications of dendrochronology to archaeological research. Tree rings are constructed 1 per year. A lot of moisture results in larger width rings. Rings can overlap with dead trees (when was the tree chopped down). It can reveal the age of a site.
Describe three methods archaeologists use to reconstruct past diets? Animal bone and dried plant assemblages are recovered, identified and counted, then their relative frequencies are compared to track changes in diet over time.
health concerns of the industrial world…stem from an imbalance between the energy we consume and the energy we expend.” What is the relationship between our large brains, and high quality diets? Why are we “…victims of our own evolutionary success?” We are victims of our own evolutionary success. We have eliminated activities that cost large amounts of energy. We are also flexible eaters and have made eating easily accessible. Calorie intake is too high.
Porotic Hyperostosis Affects cranial vault with porous bone tissue. This was caused by an iron-deficient diet. This is evidence for malnutrition among a people. With low iron, the people most likely died from an infectious disease.
Unilineal Evolution Cultures went through evolutionary stages just like organisms.
Cultural resource management CRM is the cataloging of archaeological sites on public lands threatened by construction activities such as dams, highways, well drilling pads, etc. Performed by private firms and fed agencies. CRM includes surveying and maybe expedient excavation.
enamel hypoplosia defect of the teeth in which the enamel is hard but thin and deficient. Caused by trauma, bacterial infection, or slow enamel formation.
Primates Are our closest living relatives and an unique order of mammals with a number of distinguishing characteristics that we share with the great apes in particular.
Binomial Nomenclature A system of naming species. Gives each species 2-part names. Genus-Species
gradualism/punctuated equilibrium gradualism-1 species evolves into another through gradual changes over a long time. Punctuated E. - The idea that long periods of stasis are punctuated by rapid evolutionary change. not constant like gradualism.
Great chain of being It orders the living world into a long sequence of forms that are separate links in the created process and are arranged from simple to complex. -it was a powerful visual metaphor for a divinely created hierarchy of living things.Ranks forms of life.
Thomas Malthus He wrote an essay on the principles of population and how population will grow faster than food supply.
Jean Baptiste de Lamarke Inheritance of acquired traits (giraffe that reaches for tree has longer neck) HE WAS WRONG.
Species/Ring Species species- Group of organisms that can interbreed in the wild and produce offspring. Ring species- special case speciation.
Brachiation Movement of arms. Monkeys swing from branch to branch using their arms.
homology/analogy species homology-reflect evolutionary relationships (similarities are inherited from a common ancestor). Analogy-Noise in the system (similarities resulting from adaptations designed to serve a similar function rather than from common ancestry)
allopatric/simpatric speciation allopatric takes place as a consequence of geographic separation. Simpatric speciation takes place as a consequence of niche separation. New species emerges within geographic range of an existing species.
Taxonomy Designed by Carolus Linneus which was based upon patterned similarities among living organisms. Suggested a biological relationship between species. Put organisms into categories by similarities among organisms.
Reproductive Fitness central idea in evolutionary theory. Capable of reproduction.
Gregor Mendel His work with garden peas laid the foundation for modern population genetics. Mendel's 2 laws. 1. Traits do not blend, they segregate from one gen to the next. 2. Numerous traits sort independently in each gen. Allows natural selection.
Natural selection Principle proposed by Darwin and Wallace. The process by which environmental conditions select traits most fit for survival and reproduction. Competition for resources affect reproductive success. Variation, within a breeding population, tht affcts succss
Define anthropology and its goals. Anthropology is the study human behavior over time and space with a unique cross cultural perspective.
How and why did the Nazi regime use the archaelogical record as propoganda? Have other ethnic groups done so as well? Name one example. Hitler sent out archaeologists to prove that germans were descendants of the aryan (master) race.
Prior to the mid-eighteenth century, how did people explain the presence and behavior of aboriginal people? Savages were degenerate sons of Noah's errant son, Ham (or remnants of the lost tribe). -Neander bones were buried by the devil to confuse folks. -tribal people were interpreted by biblical narratives regarding creation, flood, and house of israel
Describe the origins of unilineal evolutionary thought in anthropology. Discuss the three stages of cultural evolution designed by Lewis Henry Morgan (the three-age system). What contribution has this theory made to modern anthropological thought? Unilineal evolutionists were wrong about culture but were right about having faith in the application of the scientific method, establishing importance in comparative method n research, established anthropology as a separate field of study.
Define archaeological sites. What are taphonomic processes and how do they alter sites? How are archaeological sites formed and preserved? Sites are accumulations of artifacts, features, and refuse. Taphonomic processes occur by weathering, looting, or animals. Preserve sites by building over sites, burying artifacts, or heat/freeze site.
Discuss three methods used to locate archaeological sites. What methods are used to excavate and record sites? List three recording methods. Survey the area. Write report on historical info, opinions/theories. You can also find sites by LiDAR. Excavate by trenching, bucket moving, screening, data collection, mapping. Record with field notes, gps, GIS, photo logs-maps/drawings.
What types of materials are removed from sites and how are they analyzed? How and where is the information preserved? They gather artifacts and take them back to the research lab for research. They preserve the by protecting against temperature, humidity, light, and other taphonomic processes
List five types of information obtained from the study of human remains recovered from archaeological sites? What methods were discussed in “Written in Bone?” What did the authors learn about the death of a 15 year old boy at Jamesfort? age, sex, stature, diet, disease, nutrition, demography
In “Transformation of the Kalahari Kung,” John Yellen describes changes taking place in traditional Kung lifeways. What was changing and why? How did Yellen document these changes?
13c/12c in plant tissues is passed up the food chain so the carbon isotope ratios of animal and human tissues in terrestrial settings co-vary with reliance on C4 plants.
4 subdisciplines in anthropology. 1. cultural anthropology-modern human behavior. Includes ethnography (fieldwork) and ethnology (cross cultural studies analyze results of research). 2. Archaeology. 3. Linguistics. 4.Biological (primatology, human variation, paleoanthropology)
speciation process by which new species emerge.
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Humans are animalia, chordata, manimalia, primates, hominidaea, homo, sapien.
What does Gould mean when he says evolution is a “bush” not a ladder?” What is his functional definition of a species? How is a subspecies defined?
What has DNA hybridization revealed about the ape/human family tree? How closely related are modern humans and the great apes? What has the molecular clock revealed about the timing of speciation events among these apes? Humans share a common ancestor with apes. we are 1.2% away from chimpanzees and 1.4% from gorillas. Humans are closest to bonobos, chimps, and gorillas. 98% away from chimps and bonobos.
Describe the general characteristics of the Primate order. Include cranial, post-cranial and life history traits in your description. Appeared in cenozoic era (65mya. right after dinos). Quadrupedal locomotion. Has clavicle that helps with mobility and feeding (tree life swinging). Large brain and reduced snout. Color vision.
What examples does Jonathan Weiner give in “Evolution in Action” to support Darwinian evolutionary theory? Discuss three such examples. What do these examples tell us about the speed at which evolution occurs? Peppered moth, Finches, and guppies. These examples show evolutionary occurrences fast enough to watch.
What three conditions must be present for natural selection to take place? Discuss two common misconceptions regarding natural selection. Competition for resources. Variation within a breeding population, that affects reproductive success. Variation is heritable. Misconceptions include NS is goal oriented (teleological) and change is driven immediately by environment conditions
What is the relationship between Gregor Mendel’s work and Darwinian natural selection? Summarize Mendel’s Laws. Do they show that traits blend? Explain. Traits sort independently in each gen which allows fine tuning of an organism to its environment. Traits don't blend bc of dominant recessive genes.
Why is it true that genes coding for traits that make the carrier of the genes reproductively fit increase in frequency in the next generation? Non-coding DNA contains mutations and does not code for traits that are acted upon by natural selection.
In “Living through the Donner Party,” Jared Diamond presents several factors that seemed to affect the survivability of individuals in the Donner party. Discuss three of those factors.
What set humans apart from apes according to Michael Balter? List examples of three differences.
How do the rare stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen differ from the common stable isotopes of these elements? Why is this difference useful in dietary reconstructions?How and why does the carbon isotope chemistry of marine organisms differ from that o
What does the Figure on Slide 19 (Lecture Week 2.2) indicate about the diets of Great Salt Lake Fremont burials recovered from the Great Salt Lake wetlands? When did these individuals live? Was maize important in all their diets? How can you tell?
What does the stable isotope chemistry of Thule and Sadlermiut burials in Slides 31and 32 (Lecture Week 2.2) tell us about their diets? What main prey types did they exploit and which were most important?
Created by: Chelseagirl2508