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Ch 1 Psychology

Ch 1 Psychology Terms and Definitions

QuestionAnswer
Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Introspection The process of examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities
Structuralism Early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhem Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind.
Functionalism Early perspective in psychology associated with William James, in which the focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play.
Gestalt Psychology Early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures.
Psychoanalysis The theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud.
Psychodynamic Perspective Modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior than sexual motivations.
Behaviorism The science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only.
Humanistic Perspective Perspective that emphasizes human potential and the idea that people have the freedom to choose their own destiny.
Biopsychological Perspective Perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system.
Cognitive Perspective Modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem-solving, and learning.
Sociocultural Perspective Perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture.
Evolutionary Perspective Perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share.
Psychiatrist A medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders.
Psychologist A professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology.
Psychoanalyst Either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special training in the theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis.
Psychiatric Social Worker A social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse.
Scientific Method System of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced.
Naturalistic Observation Study in which the researcher observes people or animals in their normal environment.
Observer Effect Tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed.
Observer Bias Tendency of observers to see what they expect to see.
Case Study Study of one individual in great detail. Modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem-solving, and learning.
Survey Study conducted by asking a series of questions to a group of people.
Correlation A measure of the relationship between two variables.
Experiment A deliberated manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause and effect relationships.
Independent Variable Variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter.
Dependent Variable Variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment.
Operational Definition Definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measure.
Experimental Group Subjects in an experiment that are subjected to the independent variable.
Control Group Subjects in an experiment that are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a a placebo treatment.
Random Assignment Process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group.
Placebo Effect The phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior.
Single-Blind Study Study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group.
Experimenter Effect Tendency of the experimenter's expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study.
Double-Blind Study Study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects knows if the subjects are in the experimental or control groups.
Critical Thinking Making reasoned judgments about claims.
Created by: ANursingStudent on 2008-10-16



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