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psychology tesy #2

vocab for 2nd test

Biological Psychology – a branch of psychology that studies the links between biology and behavior (aka, behavioral neuroscientist, neuropsychologists, behavioral geneticists, physiological psychologist, or biopsychologists
Neuron – a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Dendrite the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
Axon the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
Myelin Sheath layer of fatty tissue that insulates the fibers of some neurons and helps speed their impulses.
Threshold – the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Action Potential the neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
When electrical impulses reach the axon terminal, they stimulate the release of chemical messengers called _____ neurotransmitters.
synapse the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of the receiving neuron, aka, the synaptic gap
Acetylcholine enables muscle action, learning, and memory
Dopamine movement, learning, attention, and emotion
Serotonin mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Norepinephrine alertness and arousal
GABA major inhibitory (e.g., low levels linked to seizures, tremors and insomnia)
Glutamate major excitatory, involved in memory (e.g., high levels can lead to migraines and seizures; why some people avoid MSG in food)
Endorphins “morphine within” – natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
The Nervous System the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Central Nervous System (CNS) – the brain and spinal chord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
Nerves the neural “cables” containing many axons. Part of the PNS, they connect the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs
Reticular Formation Nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important part in arousal; filters incoming stimuli and relays important info. To other parts of the brain
Thalamus Atop the brainstem, it acts as the brain’s sensory switchboard; receives info from all the senses except for smell and routes it to higher brain regions that deal with seeing, hearing, tasting, and touching
Cerebellum at the rear of the brainstem, coordinates muscle movement
Lesioning – tissue destruction; A naturally or experimentally destruction of brain tissue (e.g., a lesion in one area of the hypothalamus of a rat’s brain reduces eating)
Created by: dlantry