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Skeletal System

Chapter 6, Medical Terminology

Articular cartilage Thin layer of cartilage that covers the ends of the long bones and the surfaces of the joints.
bone depressions Concave, indented areas or openings in bones.
Bone markings Specific features of individual bones.
Bone processes Projections or outgrowths of bones.
Cancellous bone (CAN-sell-us) Spongy bone, not as dense as compact bone.
cervical vertebrae ertebrae or bones of the neck, C1 - C7.
compact bone Hard outer shell of the bone.
condyle (CON-dyle) Knucklelike projection at the end of a bone.
crest Distinct border or ridge, as in iliac crest.
diaphysis Main shaftlike portion of a bone.
epiphyseal line A layer of cartilage that separates the diaphysis fron the epiphysis of a bone, also known as the epiphyseal plate.
epiphysis (eh-PIFF-ih-sis) The end of a bone
false ribs Rib pairs 8 through 10, which connect to the vertebrae in the back but notto the sternum in the front because they join the seventh rib in the front.
fissure A groove or depression in a bone; a sulcus.
flat bones Bones that are broad and thin with flat or curved surfaces, such as the sternum.
floating ribs Rib pairs 11 and 12, which connect to the vertebrae in the back but are free of any attachment in the front.
fontanell or fontanel Space between the bones of an infant's cranium, "soft spot".
foramen Hole in a bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass.
fossa Hollow or concave depression in a bone.
haversian canals System of small canals within compact bone that contain blood essels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves.
hematopoiesis The normal formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow.
intercostal spaces Inter = between cost/o = ribs -al = pertaining to Spaces between the ribs
intervertebral disk A flat, circular, platelike structure of cartilage that serves as a cushion (or shock absorber) between the vertebrae.
long bones Bones that are longer than they are wide and with distinctive shaped ends, such as the femur.
lumbar vertebrae lumb/0 = loins, lower back -ar = pertaining to vertebr/o = vertebra The vertebrae of the lower back, 1.1 through 1.5.
medullary cavity (MED-u-lair-ee) The center portion of the shaft of the long bone containing the yellow marrow.
ossification The conversion of cartilage and fibrous connective tissue to bone; the formation of bone.
osteoblasts oste/o = bone -blast = immature, embryonic Immature bone cells that actively produce bony tissue.
osteoclasts oste/o = bone -clast = something that breaks large cells that absorb or digest old bone tissue.
osteocytes oste/o = bone -cyte = cell Mature bone cells.
periosteum peri = around oste/o = bone -um = noun ending The thick, white, fibrous membrane that coers the surface of a long bone.
red bone marrow The soft, semifluid substance located in teh small spaces of cancellous bone that is the source of blood cell production.
resorption The process of removing or digesting old bone tissue.
sesamoid bones Irregular bones imbedded in tendons near a joint, as in the kneecap or between digits.
short bones Bones that are about as long as they are wide and somewhat box-shaped, such as the wrist bone.
sinus An opening or hollow space in a bone; a cavity within a bone.
spine A sharp projection from the surface of a bone, similar to a crest.
stenosis sten/o =short, contracted, or narrow -osis = condition An abnormal condition characterized by a narrowing or restriction of an opening or passageway in a body structure.
sulcus A groove or depression in a bone; a fissure.
sutures Immovable joints, such as those of the cranium.
thoracic vertebrae thorac/o = chest -ic = pertaining to vertebr/o = vertebra The 12 vertebrae of the chest, T1 through T12.
trabeculae Needlelike bony spicules within cancellous bone that contribute to the spongy appearance. Their distribution along lines of stress adds to the strength of the bone.
trochanter Large bony process located below the neck fo the femur.
true ribs the first seven pairs of ribs, which connect to the vertebrae in the back and to the sternum in the front.
tuburcle A small rounded process of a bone.
tuberosity An elevated, broad, rounded process of a bone.
vertebral foramen A large opening in the center of each vertebrae that serves as a passageway for the spinal cord.
yellow marrow Located in the diaphysis of long bones, yellow marrow consists of fatty tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells.
acetabular acetabul/o = acetabulum Pertaining to the acetabulum, the cup-shaped socket of the hip joint which is a key feature of the pelvis.
hypocalcemia calc/o, calc/i = calcium reduction of the blood calcium below normal.
calcaneodynia calcane/o = heel bone pain in the heel, or calcaneus.
carpal carp/o wrist; of or pertaining to the carpus, or wrist.
supraclavicular clavicul/o = collarbone superior to the clavical
coccygeal coccyg/o = coccyx pertaining to or located in the region of the coccyx.
costochondral cost/o = ribs pertaining to a rib and its cartilage.
craniotomy crani/o = skull, cranium any operation on the cranium; incision into the cranium.
femoral femor/o = femur pertaining to the femur, or to the thigh.
fibular fibul/o = fibula pertaining to the fibula or to the lateral aspect of the leg; peroneal.
osteogenesis gen/o = to produce formation of bone; the development of the bones.
humeral humer/o = humerus
iliac ili/0 = ilium pertaining to the os ilium.
kyphosis kyph/o = humpback; pertaining to a hump 1. an area of the vertebral column that is convex. 2. abnormally increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic vertebral column as viewed from the side.
laminectomy lamin/o = lamina excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra.
lordosis lord/o = swayback; bent 1. a concave portion of the vertebral column as seen from the side.
lumbar lumb/o = loins, lower back pertaining to the loins, the parts of the sides of the back between the thorax and the pelvis.
malacotomy malac/o = softening
osteomalacia -malacia = softening inadequate or delayed mineralization of osteoid in mature cortical and spongy bone; it is the adult equivalent of rickets and accompanies that disorder in children.
mandibular mandibul/o = mandible (lower jaw bone) pertaining to the jawbone.
mastoiditis mastoid/o = mastoid process Mastoiditis: Inflammation of the mastoid, which often occurs secondarily to ear infection
maxillary maxill/o = upper jaw pertaining to; relating to the upper jaw.
metacarpals metacarp/o = hand bones Five cylindrical bones extending from the wrist to the fingers.
metatarsalgia metatars/o = foot bones pain and tenderness in the metatarsal region.
osteomyelitis myel/o = spinal cord or bone marrow inflammation of bone caused by infection.
olecranon olecran/o = elbow the proximal bony projection of the ulna at the elbow, its anterior surface forming part of the trochlear notch.
orthopedics orth/o = straight the branch of surgery that is specially concerned with the preservation and restoration of the function of the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.
osteoma oste/o = bone a benign, slow-growing tumor composed of well-differentiated, densely sclerotic, compact bone, usually arising in membrane bones, particularly the skull and facial bones.
patella patell/o, patell/a = kneecap a triangular sesamoid bone, about 5 cm in diameter, situated at the front of the knee in the tendon of insertion of the quadriceps extensor femoris muscle. Called also knee cap
pelvimetry pelv/i = pelvis the measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis, as by x-ray, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging.
phalangitis phalang/o = fingers, toes inflammation of one or more phalanges.
diaphysis -physis = growth, growing the elongated cylindrical portion of a long bone.
osteoporosis por/o = cavity, opening, passage, or pore -porosis = porous; lessening in density reduction in bone mineral density, leading to fractures after minimal trauma.
pubic pub/o = pubis pertaining to or situated near the pubes, the os pubis, or the pubic region.
rachitis rach/i = spinal column rickets
radial radi/o = radiation; also refers to the radius pertaining to the radius. The radius is one of the two lower arm bones that joins the humerus above and the wrist bones below.
scapular scarul/o = shoulder blade pertaining to the scapula; the flat, triangular bone in the back of the shoulder, articulating with the ipsilateral clavicle and humerus; called also shoulder blade.
scoliosis scoli/o = crooked, bent an appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine.
spondylosis spondyl/o = vertebra degenerative spinal changes due to osteoarthritis.
stenosis sten/o = short, contracted, or narrow an abnormal narrowing of a duct or canal.
substernal stern/o = sternum inferior to or deep to the sternum; called also infrasternal.
tarsals tars/o = ankle bones any of the bones of the tarsus. Ankle and foot.
temporal tempor/o = temples of the head 1. pertaining to the lateral region of the head, superior to the zygomatic arch.
intervertebral vertebr/o = vertebra between two contiguous vertebrae.
C1, C2, C3,... Cervical vertebra 1, 2, 3, etc.
DEXA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry
DIP distal interphalangeal (joint)
Fx fracture
L1, L2, L3, ... lumbar vertebra 1, 2, 3, etc.
LLE left lower extremity
LUE left upper extremity
MCP metacarpophalangeal (joint)
MTP metatarsophalangeal (joint)
PIP proximal interphalangeal (joint)
RLE right lower extremity
RUE right upper extremity
S1 sacrum
T1, T2, T3,... thoracic vertebra 1, 2, 3, etc.
THA total hip arthroplasty
THR total hip replacement
TKA total knee arthroplasty
TKR total knee replacement
TMJ tempromandibular joint
ethmoid bone ethmoid=perforated like a sieve. The ethmoid bone is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. It is located at the roof of the nose, between the two orbits.
Ewing's sarcoma a highly malignant, metastatic, primary tumor of bone, closely related to a primitive neuroectodermal tumor; it is usually found in the diaphyses of long bones, ribs, or flat bones of children or adolescents.
femur the bone that extends from the pelvis to the knee, being the longest and largest bone in the body; thigh bone.
fibula the outer and smaller of the two bones of the leg. Calf bone.
humerus the bone that extends from the shoulder to the elbow.
hyoid bone The hyoid bone (lingual bone) is a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage
ischial Pertaining to the ischium. The ischium forms the lower and back part of the hip bone. It's what we sit on.
lacrimal bones The lacrimal bone, the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit.
medullary cavity The medullary cavity is the space in a bone where a soft, flexible substance called marrow is stored.
metatarsals five miniature long bones of foot, concave on plantar and slightly convex on dorsal surface.
nasal conchae a nasal concha (or turbinate) is a long, narrow and curled bone shelf (shaped like an elongated sea-shell) that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose.
occipital bone unpaired bone constituting back and part of base of skull.
osteogenic sarcoma a malignant tumor arising from bone. Also known as osteosarcoma.
palatine bones paired cranial bone, the two forming posterior portions of bony palate. L-shaped nasal and hard palate.
parietal bones paired bone. The parietal bones /pəˈraɪɨtəl/ are bones in the human skull which, when joined together, form the sides and roof of the cranium.
phalanges fingers and toes
sacrum lower back. wedge-shaped bone formed usually by fusion of 5 vertebrae
sphenoid bone unpaired. Optic region. shaped somewhat like a butterfly.
talipes equinovarus a deformity of the foot in which the heel is turned inward from the midline of the leg and the foot is plantar flexed
tibia shin bone. medial and larger of 2 bones of lower leg.
ulna forearm. medial and longer of 2 bones of forearm
vertebrae back. separate segments of vertebral column
vomer skull bone. thin bone forming posterior and posteroinferior part of nasal septum
zygomatic bones skull bone. bone forming hard part of cheek and lower, lateral portion of rim of each orbit
Created by: RazorBrain