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Physics Equipment

Autotransformer (variable transformer) provides for the variation of voltage flowing in the xray circuit and applied to the xray tube. Source for selecting KVP. Operates off the principle self-induction.
Source of Electrons, acceleration of electrons and stoppage of electrons Needed for xray production
Prereading Voltmeter indicates the kvp that will flow through the xray tube during exposure
timer regulates duration of the xray exposure; electronic timer accurate at 1/1000 second
AEC (automatic exposure control) Ionization chamber that provides consistency of radiographic quality; placed between the patient and the image receptor
Falling load generator provides extremely short exposure times by taking advantage of tube-heat loading potential
step-up trasformer (high voltage transformer) operates on the principle of mutual induction, steps up voltage, steps down current
rectifier change AC-DC
milliammeter measures tube current
step down transformer operates on the principle of mutual induction, steps down voltage, steps up current
xray tube consists of two electrodes. cathode and anode
cathode contains filaments the source of electrons for exposure
focusing cup attempts to narrow the stream of electrons as it leaves the cathode filament
anode metal target where electron energy is converted to energy and heat energy
Focal Spot area on anode where electrons strike
Exposure Switch consists of rotor and exposure button
leaded glass envelope encircles the anode and cathode and provides a vacuum inside the xray tube
tube housing encases the xray tube, aluminum lined with lead
xray production occurs when current inside the xray tube flows from cathode and is suddenly stopped at the anode
Brems xrays produced by slowing of incoming electrons by the target atoms; slowing releases energy in the form of xrays.
characteristic xrays produced when incoming electrons at the anode dislodge orbital electrons from the target material, and outer shell electrons fall in to fill the hole created.
wavelength distance from crest to crest or trough to trough of a sine wave
frequency number of waves passing a given point per unit time
zray emission spectrum collection of all different energies of xrays in a typical xray beam
beam filtration removes long wavelength rays; total filtration must be at least 2.5 mm aluminum equivalent
heat units calculation of the total heat produced during an xray exposure
fluoroscopy provides dynamic visualization of internal structures operated at 3-5 mA
Automatic Brightness Control in fluoro, adjustment of mA and KVP to provide optimal image
Image intensifier tube consists of input phosphor,photocathode, electrostatic lenses, output phosphor
input phosphor converts xray energy to light
photocathode converts light energy to electron energy
electrostatic lenses keep electron beam narrowed as it travels toward output phosphor
output phosphor converts electron energy to light energy for viewing
total brightness gain product of flux gain and minification gain
flux gain gain brightness caused by acceleration of electronic beam inside image intensifier
minification gain gain in brightness caused by minification of the image at the output phosphor compared with the input phosphor
quality assurance complete program in radiology department that addresses all aspects of quality including customer service, image interpretation, accuracy of diagnosis, and distribution of radiologists report
quality control program that specifically addresses the safe and reliable operation of equipment
filtration beam quality tested using a digital dosimeter, half value layer measurement is required
In many cases digital fluoroscopy eliminates what? post procedure over head images
what is the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of the element atom
in digital fluoroscopy, the image must be turned into digital form by what device? analog-to-digital converter
xrays travel as bundles of energy called photons
what is atomic mass the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
what device may be used to ensure consistency of radiographic quality from one exposure to the next automatic exposure control
when a predetermined level of ionization is reached in the ionization chamber, what does the machine do the exposure is terminated
what type of xray machine uses a continually decreasing mA for the shortest times possible falling load generator
what type of current is required for proper operation of the xray tube? direct
The law stating that the outer shell of an atom can contain no more than eight electrons is called octet rule
examples of particulate radiation are helium nuclei and beta particles
electromagnetic radiation travels in waves along a straight path
at what speeds do xray travel the speed of light 186,000 miles per second
waves of radiation are called sine waves
the speed of xrays is based on the fact that they are a form of electromagnetic radiation
the xray beam changes as it travels through the patient by a process called attenuation
as radiation strikes matter the energy is transferred to the atoms according to the law of conservation of energy
what is the most commonly used AEC ionization chamber
what device is turned by a rotor anode
what is located between the patient and the image receptor ionization chamber
what is the source of characteristic and brems rays anode
what device spins at 3300 to 10000 rpm? anode
what is surrounded by a negatively charged focusing cup filament
what measures tube current mA meter
activating the rotor reduces tube life
what device increases voltage approximatelt 500 times step up transformer
what device always delivers the shortest exposure time possible falling load genetator
the process of thermonic emission causes electrons to boil off the filament
the primary purpose of filtration is radiation protection
collimator must be accurate with 2%
kVp must be accurate within 4
exposure linearity must be accurate within 10%
three phase 12 pulse full wave rectification produces? direct current with 4 % ripple
three phase 6 pulse full wave rectification produces? direct current with 13% ripple
the increase in average photon energy when using 6-pulse equipment compared with single phase equipment is? 35%
the test that measures the accuracy of successive exposures is exposure reproducibility
the test that measures the accuracy of adjacent mA stations is exposure linearity
AEC's may be tested using phantoms
marks on the focal track of the anode resulting from bombardment of electrons are called pitting
the amount of darkness on a radiograph is best described as brigthness