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Chapter 4 - Alkanes

alkanes fully saturated hydrocarbons, single bonds
primary carbon carbon bonded to one other carbon
secondary carbon carbon bonded to two carbons
As molecular weight increases... density, mp, bp increase
branched alkanes lower bp and mp, lower attractive forces, lower density
free radical halogenation when H atoms are replaced by halogen atoms (I Br or Cl)
Initiation halogens are cleaved by heat or light to form free radicals
Propagation when a radical produces another radical that can continue the rxn
Termination two free radicals combine to form stable molecule
Combustion alkane + O2 = CO2, heat and water
Pyrolysis when molecules are broken down by heat to form more desirable alkanes
Nucleophile electron rich and attracted to positive atoms; strong bases
Protic Solvents solvents capable of H bonding; larger atoms are better nucleophiles
Aprotic solvents more basic atoms are better nucleophiles
Leaving Groups weak bases make great ___ ___
Sn1 Rxns two steps; dissociation of a molecule into carbocation and LG, then carbocation plus nucleophile; polar protic solvents; tertiary carbon most stable; racemic products; favored when bulky nucleophiles
Rate of Sn1 Rxns first order rxn cuz rate depends on one species (reactant)
rate-determining step of Sn1 forming the carbocation takes longer cuz it is unfavorable and slowest step is rate-limiting step
Sn2 rxns when nucleophile actively displaces the leaving group, 1 step, transition state, polar protic solvent, optically active/inverted products; primary carbons most stable
Rate of Sn2 rxn second order rxn cuz involves substrate and nucleophile
Created by: JaeBae4444