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Unit 4 Objectives

Large Animal Medical Nursing Urinary, dermatologic, opthalmologic

the result of acute renal failure in horses is toxic causes, certain medications are commonly indicated (antibiotics/NSAIDS). breakdown product of RBC (hemoglobinuria) and muscle (myoglobinuria) can cause renal failure also.
signs of acute renal failure include oliguria (decrease in urination), anorexia, and changes in urine concentration, elevated serum chemistry levels
urotliths, urinary stones are most commonly found in the bladder but can also be found in the kidney, ureter and urethra
stones are composed of calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate; more common in geldings than mares
PU/PD can be due to physiologic causes,. including lactation, heat, exercise, diarrhea, and glucocorticoid administration, certain diseases (cushings), behavioral problem, diabetes, renal failure
equine dermatophytosis ringworm a fungal infection of the superficial layer of skin. "bull's-eye" appearance with hair loss caused by Trichophyton and Microsporum
Dermatophilosis is a bacterial infection caused by Dermatophilus congolensis rain rot or rain scald - crust are usually pulled out with a tuff of hair leaving a lession yellow in appearances
rain rot is most common in winter and spring because organisms like to colonize wet, macerated skin. organisms form a double cocci chain "railroad track" appearance under microscopy
a syndrome characterized by mane and tail rubbing develops into an allergic pruritic skin condition secondary to the bite of Culicoides flies, Culicoides hypersensitivity
body regions affected by culicoides in clude face, ears, mane, withers, rump, base of tail and ventral abdomen
horses should be moved away from ponds, lakes or irrigation canals because culicoides breed in stagnant waters
the ways to decrease culicoides are stabling with doors and windows closed, use of fans and insecticides and repellents
a benign locally invasive tumor of the skin, the most common tumor in horses is equine sarcoid-raised hairless lesions with a corrugated surface often bleeding when
raised hairless lesions with a corrugated surface that often bleed when traumatized fibroblastic sarcoids
a flattened form sarcoid verrucous sarcoid
treatment for sarcoids is usually surgical resection, cryotherapy, laser therapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy
common skin tumors particularly in grey horses melanomas
treatment of melanomas is administration of cimetidine, or autologous vaccines (vaccines made from the horse's tumor), surgical removal if it interfers with tack or normal body functions
the most common cause of blindness in horses is equine recurrent uveitis (moon blindness)
moon blindness is an immunemediated condition (many things have been blamed on its presence, ie heredity, parasites etc)
clinical signs of moon blindness include episodes of intraocular inflammation, swelling of the eyelids, corneal edema, and hypopyon (inflammatory cellular exudate in the anterior chamber)
over time the episodes become more frequent and more severe and produce permanent ocular damage including retinal degeneration, cataracts and adhesions of the iris to the lens or to the anterior chamber (synechiae)
moon blindness is treated with long term anti-inflammatory therapy opthalmic and systemic. preparations containing atropine and corticosteroids if no ulcer is found
corneal ulceration commonly results from ocular trauma
in some instances ulcers are colonized by fungus Pseudomanas or Aspergillus - causing a "melting" corneal ulcer that is rapidly progressive and can result in rupture of the globe
Created by: tnewhouse