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Final Exam Terms

Upper Canada lower part of Ontario, founded in 1791
*radical group in upper canada Family Compact small group of public servants- dominated the decision-making bodies of UC 1830. John Graves Simcoe-first lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada 2 create a local aristocracy by naming his friends to important political & judiciary positions.
leader of upper canada rebellion William Lyon Mackenzie Newspaper-editor of the Colonial Advocate.Elected to the Legislative assembly, termed a Radical.Promoted political reform & freedom. When British troops left for the turmoil in Lower Canada rebellion started & failed.
Canada's 19th century oligarchies Chateau Clique and Family Compact
Robert Nelson An Anglo-Quebecer physician and a leading figure in the Lower Canada Rebellion in 19th century Quebec (Lower Canada). He was an immigrant to Colonial America from Newsham, North Yorkshire.
Les Freres Chasseurs French for "Hunter Brothers". A paramilitary organization that fought in the Patriot Rebellion on the Patriot side, seeking to make Lower Canada, now Quebec, an independent and democratic republic.
results of the rebellions Both Mackenzie and Papineau escape to the U.S. Other Leaders were hung. Prisoners were exported to Bermuda (Upper) and Australia (Lower. British send new Governor Lord Durham to investigate why the rebellions took place.
Lord Durham A radical within the Whigs party (against the Tories. He was nicknamed‘Radical Jack’. He Believed in reforms in Britain (Great Reform Act of 1832. He was sent to Canada to investigate & report after the rebellions. Returns,writes his report & dies @ 40.
Act of Union Applies some of Durham’s Report. To unite the two Colonies of Canada into a single unit & create an English majority. THE PROVINCE OF CANADA Canada East:Lower Canada Canada West:Upper Canada Assimilate the French Canadians!
rebellion loses bill of 1849 Baldwin-Lafontaine Reform Government introduced a bill to repay anyone who lost property during the Rebellions of 1837. It was to be the first test for Responsible Government.
united empire loyalists When peace was established in 1783, many of Loyalists,referred to as Tories by fellow countrymen, left the US. Started their lives afresh under the British flag in Nova Scotia & in the unsettled lands above the St. Lawrence rapids & north of Lake Ontario.
church of England in Upper Canada The Anglican Church of Canada has its roots in the Church of England, which separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century
first settlers of Upper Canada the Americans and the loyalists
clergy reserves in Upper Canada blocks of land set aside (through sale or rent) to provide income for the government and the angelican church. this made a total of 2 sevenths of upper canada.
Irish nationalists and their impact on Canada An Irish society that planned to harm Canada because of the British ties. Angry Irish who had come to United States who still wanted to get back at mistreatment from Britain. Felt the Irish Potato Famine had been caused by Britain
British North American Act (BNA) Based on the Quebec Resolutions. Retained the monarch as the supreme authority (Governor General. Many small details are included (even ferry service. Recognized both federal and provincial levels of government.
provincial powers S(92) Amendments to the constitution Provincial taxes Timber and wood in Provincial areas Prisons in Province Hospitals and health Liquor licenses Roads, canals etc Civil rights in the Province Education
conferences leading to confederation Charlottetown (September 1864) Quebec (October 1864) London, England (December 1866)
key individuals in building compromise for confederation John A. MacDonald, George-Etienne Cartier, James Douglas, William Van Horne
key prime ministers in Canadian history (1867-1914) John A. Macdonald, Alexander Mackenzie, John A. Macdonald, John Abbott, John Thompson, Mackenzie Bowell, Wilfrid Laurier, Robert Borden
factors that lead colonies to join confederation The CPR (trade & defense),sovereignty,abolished trade barriers & tariffs,allow trade from an ice-free port (Halifax), Prevent western regions from being annexed by the US – Alaska purchase 1867 – threat during American civil war – Britain supported South.
first provinces of confederation New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Canada (Quebec and Ontario)
B.C.'s decision to join There was fear of annexation to the United States, the overwhelming debt created by rapid population growth, the need for government-funded services to support the population, economic depression caused by the end of the gold rush
pacific scandal It was a scam. During the election, conservatives needed more money, so MacDonald ask Cartier to write two memos- Hugh Allan was promised a railway contract, and in return Hugh Allan agreed to help fund for the conservatives.
national policy (pros and cons) Introduced by John A. Macdonald, 1876-1879. Called for high tariffs on imported manufactured items - protect the manufacturing industry. Pros-Improve trade greatly within the dominion - prevent manifest destiny, immigrants
prairie provinces decision to join confederation *responsible government *agriculture *fur trading options - Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company *ownership of natural resources was retained by the federal government to provide funds for colonization and railway building
what is confederation Canadian Confederation was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed on July 1, 1867. On that day, three British colonies became four provinces of the new dominion.
US civil war in relation to Canadian history *canadians were suspicious of americans-manifest destiny *americans had invaded canada twice-revolution & war of 1812 *after civil war threat became greater-britain helped americans and americans could easily invade
US territorial expansion Manifest destiny - Americans purchased Alaska from Russia, and fought over much of the Oregon territory.
manifest destiny & impact on Canada *the american idea that it was the american destiny to control all of north america *canadians thought that if they were to unite then it would be less likely from the americans to invade a sovereign country.
Rupert's Land a territory in British North America, consisting of the Hudson Bay drainage basin that was nominally owned by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870
Lord Selkirk born in Scotland, traveled to the Red River Valley to try and put an end to the fighting between Baymen, Nor'westers and the Métis.
red river resistance was the sequence of events related to the 1869 establishment of a provisional government by the Métis leader Louis Riel and his followers at the Red River Colony, in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba.
Thomas Scott an Irish-born Canadian whose 1870 execution by the provisional government of the Red River Settlement led to the Wolsey Expedition to quell the Red River Rebellion.
land surveyors determine the boundary of real property on the ground. That boundary has already been established and described in legal documents and official plans and maps prepared by attorneys, engineers, and other land surveyors
northwest rebellion A brief & unsuccessful uprising by the Métis people of the District of Saskatchewan under Louis Riel against the gov of Canada. The Métis believed that the Canadians had failed to address the protection of their rights, land, and survival.
Louis Riel trial & impact on Canadian politics Riel was accused of treason. The trial happened on July 1885-lasted only five days, resulted in a guilty verdict. Riel was given a choice to plead guilty or insanity. Riel was hung. This affected relationship between Francophones and Anglophones
role of CPR in western Canada's development Commencement of a transcontinental railway within 2 years and completion within 10 years were conditions of British Columbia's entry into Confederation in 1871
key individuals in BC's history Amor De Cosmos, James Douglas, Simon Fraser, Alexander Mackenzie, Captain George Vancouver
role of gold in BC history gold rushes- california gold rush - sent influx of immigrants to canada - fraser river gold rush - cariboo gold rush. All important episodes in the history and settlement of European peoples in western Canada.
British Empire of the 1920's Very vast - controlled parts of Africa, middle east, Asia, Australia, New Zealand and South America.
Boer war & impact on Canada Split South Africa into French-English lines. Canada sent troops to help out the British and they had sympathy for the Boers.
last best west a phrase used to market the Canadian prairies to prospective immigrants. The phrase was used to advertise the Canadian west abroad, and in Eastern Canada, during the heyday of western settlement from 1896 until the start of the First World War.
William Cornelius Van Horne Born in Illinois, he was in almost complete control of building the CPR
Chinese & East Indian immigrants Chinese played a very significant role in the building of the CPR - Chinese accounted for much of the labor in Canada at the time as well. Komagata Maru - a ship containing east Indians - 376 passengers and only 24 admitted to Canada.
political cartoons illustrations or comic strips containing a political or social message that usually relates to current events or personalities.
Alaska boundary dispute *between US and the British (Canada) *solved in 1903 *purchased from Russia *US kept most of the disputed land in exchange for four islands that would now belong to Canada.
Individuals in Canadian history who had the greatest impact on Canada between the years 1812-1914 *Chinese Canadians *William Cornelius Van Horne *CPR- if it were not for this we would not have a country fundimental and here are the key players within it *John A Macdonald*quotes*(english - bring in french canadian factor into confed) *Louis Riel
*radical group in lower canada Château Clique, nickname small group of officials, usually members of the anglophone merchant community, including John MOLSON & James MCGILL,dominated the executive & legislative councils.The judiciary & senior bureaucratic of LC until 1830s
leader of the lower canada rebellion Louis-Joseph Papineau-seigneur & elected member of the assembly. Part of the 92 Resolutions.Very organized reformers & radicals. Won a battle at St. Denis. Lost many others, including at St. Eustache-radicals hiding in a Church were seized & burned out.
result of empire loyalists Influx of settlers, marked first major wave of immigration by English settlers since the days of New France. Their arrival had 2 consequences for British colonies; Atlantic province of Nova Scotia and the inland colony of Quebec had to be reorganized.
impact of the Fenians Neither the Americans nor the Canadians supported them. But their attacks made Canadians realize how vulnerable they were and strengthened support for Confederation.
federal powers (S91): Public debt and property Trade and commerce Taxation Postal service Statistics Military and defense Currency Banking Indian land rights Marriage and divorce P.O.G. *residual / emergency*
Created by: Mid-Term