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vestibule A chamber that joins the cochlea and semicircular canals.
eustachian tube A tube which connects the nose and the throat with the cavity of the middle ear.
refraction Ability to bend light rays as they pass from one medium to another.
epiphora Abnormal overflow of tears.
accommodation Adjustment of the eye for various distances so that the images fall on the retina of the eye.
cycloplegic agents Agents which paralyze ciliary muscles, causing dilation of the pupils.
retinopathy Any disorder of retinal blood vessels.
humor Any fluid or semifluid of the body.
conduction impairment Blocking of sound waves as they pass through the external and middle ear.
retinitis pigmentosum Chronic progressive disease of degeneration of the retina and atrophy of the optic nerve.
trachoma Chronic, contagious form of conjunctivitis common in the southwestern U.S. that typically leads to blindness.
acuity Clearness or sharpness of a sensory function.
anacusis Complete deafness; also called anacusia.
noise-induced hearing loss Condition caused by the destruction of hair cells, the organs responsible for hearing, caused by sounds that are "too long, too loud or too close"
otoplasty Corrective surgery for a deformed or excessively large or small pinna.
blepharoplasty Cosmetic surgery that removes fatty tissue above and below the eyes that commonly form as a result of the aging process or excessive exposure to the sun.
dacryocystorhinostomy Creation of an opening into the nose for draining of tears.
astigmatism Defective curvature of the cornea or lens.
otopyorrhea Discharge of pus from the ear.
Meniere disease Disorder of the labyrinth that leads to progressive loss of hearing.
diabetic Disorder that occurs in patients with diabetes and is manifested by small hemorrhages, edema, and formation of new vessels on the retina, leading to scarring and eventual loss of vision.
otalgia Ear pain.
fluorescein angiography Evaluation of blood vessels and their leakage in and beneath the retina after injection of fluorescein dye, which circulates while photographs of the vessels within the eye are obtained.
tonometry Evaluation of intraocular pressure by measuring the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force.
retinoscopy Evaluation of refractive errors of the eye by projecting a light into the eyes and determining the movement of reflected light rays.
tuning fork test Evaluation of sound conduction using a vibrating tuning fork.
ectropion Eversion, or outward turning, of the edge of the lower eyelid.
gonioscopy Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye to determine ocular motility and rotation and diagnose and manage glaucoma.
perilymph Fluid that very closely resembles spinal fluid but found in the cochlea.
ear irragation Flushing of the ear canal with water or saline to dislodge foreign bodies or impacted cerumen.
cyclodialysis Formation of an opening between the anterior chamber and the suprachoroidal space for the draining of aqueous humor in glaucoma.
nyctalopia Impaired vision in dim light; also called night blindness.
prebyacusis Impairment of hearing resulting from old age; also called presbyacusia.
radial keratotomy Incision of the cornea for treatment of nearsightedness or astigmatism.
otitis externa Infection of the external auditory canal.
labyrinthitis Inflammation of the inner ear that usually results from an acute febrile process.
pressure-equalizing tube placement Insertion of tubes through the tympanic membrane, commonly used to treat chronic otitis media; also called tympanostomy tubes or ventilation tubes.
entropion Inversion or inward turning of the edge of the lower eyelid.
tunic Layer or coat of tissue; also called membrane layer
photopigment Light-sensitive pigment in the retinal cones and rods that absorbs light and initiates the visual process; also called visual pigment.
hordeolum Localized, circumscribed, inflammatory swelling of one of the several sebaceous glands of the eyelid, generally caused by a bacterial infection; also called stye.
presbyopia Loss of accommodation of the crystalline lens associated with the aging process.
audiometry Measurement of hearing acuity at various sound wave frequencies.
electronystagmography (ENG) Method of assessing and recording eye movements by measuring the electrical activity of the extraocular muscles.
phacoemulsification Method of treating cataracts by using ultrasonic waves to disintegrate a cloudy lens, which is then aspirated and removed.
visual acuity (VA) test Part of an eye examination that determines the smallest letters that can be read on a standardized chart at a distance of 20 feet.
tinnitus Perception of ringing, hissing, or other sounds in the ears or head when no external sound is present.
olfactory Pertaining to smell.
cochlear implant insertion Placement of an artificial hearing device that produces hearing sensations by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear; also called bionic ear.
pneumatic Prolapse of the eyelid.
tympanoplasty Reconstruction of the eardrum, commonly due to perforation; also called myringoplasty.
enucleation Removal of the eyeball from the orbit.
vertigo Sensation of a spinning motion either of oneself or of the surroundings.
labyrinth Series of intricate communicating passages.
achromatopsia Severe congenital deficiency in colour perception; also called complete colour blindness.
chalazion Small, hard tumour developing on the eyelid, somewhat similar to a sebaceous cyst.
slit-lamp examination Stereoscopic magnified view of the anterior eye structures in detail, which includes the cornea, lens, iris, sclera, and vitreous humor.
opaque Substance or surface that neither transmits nor allows the passage of light.
sclerostomy Surgical formation of an opening in the sclera.
mastoid antrotomy Surgical opening of a cavity within the mastoid process.
papilledema Swelling and hyperemia of the optic disc, usually associated with increased intracranial pressure; also called choked disc.
caloric stimulation test Test that uses different water temperatures to assess the vestibular portion of the nerve of the inner ear to determine if nerve damage is the cause of vertigo.
adnexa Tissues or structures in the body adjacent to or near a related structure.
Rinne Tuning fork test that evaluates bone conduction of sound in both ears at the same time.
Weber Tuning fork test that evaluates bone conduction verses air conduction of sound.
nystagmus Type of involuntary eye movements that appear jerky and may reduce vision or be associated with other, more serious conditions that limit vision.
photophobia Unusual intolerance and sensitivity to light.
metamorphopsia Visual distortion of objects.
equilibrium A state of balance, controlled by the semicircular canals and the vestibule.
cerumen A waxy secretion produced by the glands of the external ear canal to prevent the entrance of tiny foreign particles.
glaucoma Accumulation of aqueous humor in the eye.
ametropia An error in refraction causing poor focus.
strabismus Condition in which one eye is misaligned with the other or out of synchrony.
ophthalmic decongestants Constrict the small arterioles of the eye, decreasing redness and relieving conjunctival congestion.
antiglaucoma agents Decrease aqueous humor production by constricting the pupil to open the angle between the iris and cornea.
corectasis Dilation of the pupil.
iridectomy Excision of the iris.
hyperopia Farsightedness.
dacryorrhea Flow of tears.
otosclerosis Hardening of the spongy bone around the oval window of the ear, causing hearing loss.
audition Hearing.
conjuctivitis Inflammation of the conjunctiva with vascular congestion, producing a red or pink eye and may be secondary to allergy or viral, bacterial, or fungal infections.
eustachitis Inflammation of the Eustachian tube.
iritis Inflammation of the iris.
otitis media Inflammation of the middle ear.
pressure-equalizing tube placement Insertion of tubes through the tympanic membrane, commonly used to treat chronic otitis media; also called tympanostomy tubes or ventilation tubes.
ophthalmic antibiotics Inhibit growth of microorganisms that infect the eye.
esotropia Inward turning of the eye(s).
amblyopia Lazy eye syndrome.
anosmia Loss of sense of smell.
electronystagmography (ENG) Method of assessing and recording eye movements by measuring the electrical activity of the extraocular muscles.
ciliary muscles Muscles which relax or contract to alter the shape of the lens, making it thicker or thinner, thus enabling the light rays to focus upon the retina.
mastoid process One of the temporal bones which encloses the sinuses.
stapes One of the three bones of the middle ear; shaped like stirrups.
malleus One of the three bones of the middle ear; shaped like a hammer.
incus One of the three bones of the middle ear; shaped like an anvil.
semicircular canals One of the three structures of the inner ear; responsible for balance.
optometrist One who specializes in eye measurements.
cataracts Opacities on the lens or the capsule that encloses the lens, causing loss of vision.
exotropia Outward turning of the eye (s).
ophthalmoplegia Paralysis of the eye.
lacrimal Pertaining to a tear.
otic analgesics Provide temporary relief from pain and inflammation associated with otic disorders.
ear canal Slender tube lined with glands, through which sound waves travel to the middle ear.
chalazion Small, hard tumour developing on the eyelid, somewhat similar to a sebaceous cyst.
cochlea Snail-shaped inner ear structure.
ophthalmic moisturizers Soothe dry eyes due to environmental irritants and allergens.
keratocentesis Surgical puncture of the cornea.
gustation Taste.
cornea The clear, transparent portion of the sclera, anterior to the lens.
sclera The white of the eye, composed of a tough, fibrous tissue which serves as a protective shield for the more sensitive structures underneath.
ossicles Three tiny articulating bones in the middle ear.
hairs of Corti Tiny nerve ending within the cochlea which combine with cochlear fluid to generate nerve impulses to the brain via the auditory nerve.
antiemetics Treat and prevent nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and vertigo by reducing the sensitivity of the inner ear to motion or inhibiting stimuli from reaching the part of the brain that triggers nausea and vomiting.
intracapsular extraction Use of a cold metal probe to remove cataracts.
otoscopy Visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope.
ophthalmodynamometry Visual examination of the interior of the eye using a hand-held instrument called an ophthalmoscope, which has various adjustable lenses for magnification and a light source to illuminate the interior of the eye.
Created by: Barbara Ross