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Funeral History #3

Embalming in the Middle Ages

What spices were used in Embalming in the Middle Ages? Oil of Rosemary Oil of Lavender
What chemicals were used in Embalming in the Middle Ages? Zinc compounds Arsenic Aluminum Chloride Bi-chloride of Mercury
Why wasn't Embalming common in the Middle Ages? It was considered a mutilation of God's creation, it was only done for funerary purposes for the wealthy or royal.
Who performed embalmings in the Middle Ages? Surgeons and Anatomists, who were the doctors of the day.
First Step in Middle Ages embalming Remove Soft Organs (heart, liver, kidneys, stomach, etc) because they were most susceptible to rapid decomposition.
Second Step in Middle Ages embalming Clean the cavities left by removed organs. Clean with water, alcohol and sweet smelling substances.
Third Step in Middle Ages embalming The cavities were filled with spices and chemicals, and cotton to help dry out the body and assist with the odor.
Fourth Step in Middle Ages embalming The body was wrapped in many layers of cloth, to reduce exposure to air, in order to slow decay.
Who were the Medical Embalmers? During the Renaissance, they used injection techniques to trace blood levels, for the study of anatomy and surgery.
Who was Dr. Frederick Ruysch? He was considered the Father of Embalming.
Who was Dr. William Harvey? He discovered the circulation of the blood, in 1625.
Who was Dr. Gabriel Clauderus? He developed a method of embalming without evisceration.
Who was Dr. Anton Von Leeuwenhoek? He invented the microscope, was a bacteriologist and is known as the Father of Bacteriology.
What did the Barber Surgeons contribute? They were doctors who sought to cure their patients with blood-letting. Their work led to more general surgery, and they eventually became the key embalmers. This is when embalming because an designated occupation (for medical reasons only).
What was the embalming process used by Barber Surgeons? Incisions were made in the arms & thighs, for blood to flow. The body was washed, spices & powders were stuffed in the incisions, then areas were sewn up. Body was anointed with oils, spices & wrapped in linen, then placed in a coffin with sweet herbs.
What was the Reformation? This was a religious movement, breaking away from the Catholic Church, no longer following the Pope in Rome. Martin Luther rejected the Doctrine of Purgatory. Led to a decrease in ostentatious practices at funerals.
What were Feudal Funerals? Large estates were known as Feudal Estates, owned by Feudal Lords. The funerals for them was very elaborate.
What did the term 'Undertaker' mean in the 15th century? It referred to people who 'undertook' a job, and had no association with funerals.
What did the term 'Undertaker' mean in 16th century? The term began to refer to people who provided funeral paraphernalia.
When did the the term 'Undertaker' start to take on the current-day meaning? The first noted use of the term 'Undertaker' to describe a Funeral Director was in 1698.
Why did Tradesmen Undertakers become necessary? Funerals were getting more elaborate and family needed outside help to provide these goods: coffins, shrouds, palls, mourning drapes, candles, armbands, cloaks...
What were Friendly Societies? These were groups of people who arranged for the burial of lower class citizens.
Who was Edwin Chadwick? A civil servent in England, he researched sanitary conditions of Great Britain. Published a report on the interments within cities and towns. Brought regulations to cemeteries and sanitary practices with the dead.
What was Sanitary Reform? There was an awareness of the problems arising from decomposing bodies and people demanded reform in funerals for sanitary reasons. Concerns of epidemics, with bodies being buried where people lived, worked and where crops grew...
Created by: kellyrb