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Chapter 4

Histology-Study of Tissues

epithelial tissue covers body surfaces or tissues and lines body cavities in order to protect and control permeability, forms glands for secretion, gametes for reproduction, and some sensory tissues (smell, hearing, vision, touch)
general characteristics of epithelial tissue closely packed cells with little or no interstitial material (cells are bound to eachother by cell junctions such as tight junctions,desmosomes, and gap junctions)cells are arranged in continuous sheets (single or multi-layered) polarity 1 free (apical) s
closely packed cells with little or no interstitial material is characteristic of... epithelial tissue
cells are arranged in continous sheets single or multi-layered is characteristic of.. epithelial tissue
polarity- 1 free (apical) side of cell faces an open area and the opposite surface (basal) lays on a non-living "basement membrane" is characteristic of... epithelial tissue
avuscularity no blood vessels
avuscularity is characteristic of... epithelial tissue
high regenerative capacity is characteristic of.. epithelial tissue
variety of shapes from flat (squamous) to columnar is characteristic of.. epithelial tissue
simple squamous epithelium single, falt layer as in tiled floorfound where rapid movement of materials across is important, endotheliummesothelium
endothelium lines heart, blood and lymphatic vessels, forms capillary walls
mesothelium lines thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities, covers organs within these cavities
simple cuboidal epithelium appear as closely fitted polygons, function in secretion and absorption,
simple columnar epithelium cells are rectangular with nuclei near basefunction in absorption and secretionfree surface is often modified with microvilli, cilia, or as goblet cells
simple squamous epithelium ex. air sacs of lungs, filtering part of kidney
simple cuboidal epithelium ex. lining kidney tubules, secreting parts of glands and their ducts
simple columnar epithelium ex. lining the digestive tract from the stomach to rectum, upper respiratory tract, lining ventricle of brain
psudostratified columnar epithelium appearance is that of multilayered tissue, but it is not-cells are different heights and nuclei vary in their levels, may be ciliated
pseudostratified columnar epithelium ex. lines major portions of upper respiratory tract and certain ducts of male reproductive system
stratified squamous epiithelium superficial layers, cells are flat deeper cells, vary from cuboidal to columnarfunctions in protective rolekeratinized (outer layer of cells is filled with the protei keratin which protects against heat, mocrobes, and chemicals, resistant to friction)non
stratified cuboidal epithelium raregenerally only 2 layersfunctions for protection
stratified cuboidal epithelium ducts of sweat glands, male urethra
stratified columnar epithelium raresurface cells are columnar, underlying cells varyfunctions for protection and secretion
stratified columnar epitheium ex. urethra, ducts of salivary glands, milk ducts in mammary glands
transitional epithelium much like a stratified cuboidal epitheliumbasal cellsare cuboidal, surface cells are dome shaped or squamous liketissue can be stretched without pulling cells apart
transitional epithelium ex lines the ureters, urinary bladder
glandular epithelium 2 types of glands endocrine glandsexocrine glands
endocrine glands secrete products into the blood stream
exocrine glands secrete products into a duct or tube
serous glands a watery solution contining enzymes
mucous glands glycoproteins that hydrate and lubricate
mixed glands serous and mucous (saliva)
holocrine entire cell ruptures
holocrine ex sebaceous (oil) glands of skin
apocrine apex of cell is pinched off
apocrine ex. mammary glands
merocrine most common, secretion by exocytosis
merocrine ex. pancreas, salivary, and sweat glands
unicellular no duct is used (goblet cells)
multicellular-simple or compound simple-duct is unbranched although secretory part might becompound-duct branches
simple multicellular tubular (intestines, sweat)acinar-secretory part is rounded or flask-shaped (male reproductive tract, sebaceous (oil) glands)
compound multicellular tubular (kidneys, liver, testes)acinar (pacreas)tubuloacinar (salivary)
connective tissue most abundant tissue, found everywhere
function of connective tissue binds, supports, strengthens other tissues, protects, insulates, compartmentalizes structures, transports (blood), immunity
general characteristics of connective tissue vascularization varies from none to muchcells are widely scattered with a secreted non-living intercellular matrix found between them
matrix may be fluid to firm to rigid
ground substance of matrix glycosaminoglycans such as hyaluronic acid
fibers of matrix collagenous, elastic, reticular
collagenous fibers tough, white, thick bundle of fibers formed by many subunits wound together like a rope; flexible and strong
elastic branched and wavy, yellow, made of protein elastin which gives it elastic properties
reticular thin, a type of thin collagenous fibers, forms networks
cells in connective tissue fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblastsform the ground substance and produce the fibers
other cell types in various c.t.'s fibrocytes-mature formfat cells-adipocytesmesenchymal cells
non c.t. cells macrophages-engulf debris and bacteriaplasma cells-form antibodiesmast cell-releases histamine which initiates inflammatory responses
types of connective tissues embryonic, connective tissues proper
embryonic mesenchyme (source of all other connective tissues), mucous connective tissue (located in the umbilical cord of a fetus)
connective tissue proper more or less fluid matrix with all three types of fibers and many cell types scattered througout the matrix
loose connective tissues areoloar-universal packing material, adipose, reticular
areoloar characteristics semifluid ground substance, all 3 fiber types loosely arranged, most of the cell types listed
adipose (fat) padding, cushions shock, insulator against heat loss, packing, filling and storage functions
adipose characteristics store triglycerides which occupy majority of cell volumefound anywehre areolar tissues is located
reticular characteristics forms framework of many organs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrowanalogy is the honeycomb
dense connective tissues much higher density of fibers and fewer cellsdense regular, dense irregular, elastic connective tissue
dense regular collagenous fibers arranged in same directioncompose tendons and most ligaments
dense irregular collagen fibers are interwoven to provide strengtrh in tissues pulled in different directionsmembranes around kidney, heart, liver, testes, deep fascia, periosteum, dermis of the skin
elastic connective tissues elastic fibers outnumber collagenous fibersvery elastic in propertyvocal chords in larynx, walls of arteries, trachea, bronchial tubes, ligaments between vertebrae
supporting c.t.'s cartilage, bone, membranes, muscle tissue, nervous tissue
cartilage characteristics matrix more gel-like due to chondroitin sulfates dense collagenous and elastic fibers, no blood vessels, no nerve fiberscells are chondroblasts and chondrocytes and are found embedded in matrix in lacunae (spaces)
hyaline cartilage flexibility and supportbluish-white, glossy fibrils dispersed, most abundant cartilage, found at joints of long bones, embryonic skeleton, helps form nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi
fibrocartilage strength and rigiditycourse collagenous fibers make it rigidsymphysis of pubic and discs between vertebrae
elastic cartilage strength and stretchnumerous elastic fibers make it very flexible, maintains shape of organs, epiglottis, external ear, auditory tubes
bone intercellular matrix contains mineral salts (calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate) which makes it quite hardcells (osteoblasts and osteocytes) are in lacunae which are often arranged in concentric layers called lamellae
fluid connective tissues blood, lymph
blood connective tissue 3 types of cells, red, white, and platelets surrounded by fluid intercellular material
lymph connective tissues fluid which forms as interstitial fluid enters special passageways...cells are almost entirely lymphocytes
membranes flat sheets of flexible tissue that line or cover structures
epithelial membranes combination of epithelial layer and underlying connective tissue layer
mucous membrane lines body cavities open to exterior (digestive, respiratory, excretory, reproductive)
serous membrane lines body cavities not open to exterior and cover organs within those cavities
cutaneous integumentary system
synovial membranes areoloar connective tissue with elastic fibers and fat-line the cavities of joints, no epithelium
muscle tissue 1 basic function contract
three types of muscle tissue skeletal, striated, or voluntaryvesceral, smooth, or involuntarycardiac
skeletal, striated, or voluntary cells are large, cylindrical in shape and multinucleatedcells are organized into distinct muscle groups and are associated with tendons
visceral, smooth, or involuntary (associated with organs) cells are small, tapered at the ends and are mononucleated
cardiac striated, involuntary, found only within the walls of the heart, cells are cynlindrical and striated but usually mononucleatedunique feature is that cells are interconnected by branches
nervous tissue functioning cells are neurons, support cells are neuroglial cells
neurons scarttered and separated by support cellstransmit electrical impulses for the purposes of communication and control
neuroglial cells provide physical protection and nourishmentnot involved in the transmission of impulses
Created by: nanchie1987

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