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Science Test

TermDefinition
Gregor Mendel Experienced with pea plants, "father of genetics".
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring.
Genetics The scientific study of heredity.
Traits Characteristics than an organism can pass on to it's offspring through it's genes.
Examples of Traits: Eye color, hair color, and body type.
Two genes for every trait, one from mom, and one from dad. 23 chromosomes from each parent, offspring is 46 chromosomes.
Alleles The different forms of a gene.
Dominant Genes A trait that always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
Recessive Genes Masked and covered up whenever the dominant allele is present.
Purebred One that always produces offspring with the same trait as the parent.
Hybrid Two different alleles.
Genotype Genetic make-up or allele combination.
Phenotype It's physical appearance or visible traits.
Heterozygous Two different alleles. EX. Bb, Ll, Rr, Ww
Homozygous Same alleles. EX. BB, LL, rr, ww
Cells The basic unit of structure and function in living things. Cells → Tissues → Organs → System
Chromosomes A double rod of condensed chromatin; contains DNA that carries genetic information.
Gene A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait.
Cell Membrane A cell structure that controls which substance can enter or leave the cell
Nucleus A cell structure that contains nucleic acids, the chemical instructions that direct all the cells activities.
Probability The likelihood that a particular event will occur.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed down from parent to offspring.
Sperm; Spermatozoa Sex cell passed down from the male.
Egg; Ovum, Oocyte Sex cell passed down from the female.
Inherited Traits A distinguishing quality of characteristic transmitted genetically.
Acquired Traits A physical characteristic that is not inherited.
Pregnancy lasts... 38-40 weeks
Embryo Growing within. 0-8 weeks old
Fetus Unborn offspring. 8 weeks-birth
DNA is on... Chromosomes
Placenta communicates through the... Umbilical cord
Provides embryo with protection? Amniotic fluid
Heart beats on... Day 22
First brain waves on... Day 48
Development is largely finished in 12 weeks except... Brain and liver
Ovulation The process in which a mature egg is released from the ovary into an oviduct; occurs about halfway through a typical menstrual cycle.
Gametes The reproductive cells, sperm, and egg cells. They unite to form the first cell, zygote.
Fertilization The joining of sperm and egg cells.
Cleavage The first days and weeks after conception.Cell division begins, converting the zygote to a multicellular organism. Cell division occurs every 20 hours.
Morula Day 4- (16-32 cells) A solid ball of cells. It is a spherical embryonic mass of blastomeres formed before the blastula.
Early Blastocyst A cavity forms in the center of the morula. The cells inside the cavity flatten and compact. The resulting structure is called a blastocyst.
Implantation Around Day 6 or 7- The blastocyst attaches to the endomentrium and burrows in, implantaion. At this time, the blastocyst releases the HCG which stimulates estrogen and progesterone to prevent menstrual flow. This is around the time morning sickness occurs
Gastrulation Day 7-10- Gastrulation is where major cellular reorganization into two or three tissue layers. 1. Ectoderm- Skin and nervous system 2. Mesoderm- Muscles, bones and heart 3. Endoderm- Lining of gut, internal organs
Differentiation In time, the cells of the embryo differentiate to form specialized structures and functions. EX. Neurons, blood, cells, skin cells, etc.
Growth Day 10-14- The pregnancy is established and the amniotic cavity forms. After all the systems are formed, the embryo goes through a period of growth.
Pregnancy is established... 10-14 days
Created by: champ181 on 2014-05-21



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