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Air pollution Changes in chemical composition of atmosphere/ effects plant and animal health
Human sources auto exhaustion, factory, forest fire/ toxic and persistent
Natural Sources grass fire, forest fire, soil erosion, volcanic eruptions, sea spray
Primary pollutants released directly in their harmful form
Secondary pollutants converted to hazardous in the atmosphere
VOCs organic(human synthesized) chemicals that evaporate readily and exist as a gas in the atmosphere
Point source pollution identifiable discharge source
Non point source dispersed, no specific location
Atmospheric deposition long range transport
Grasshopper effect contaminants transported in a series
7 major pollutants and unconventional pollutants
sulfur compounds 25% human generated/ coal natural gas, colorless corrosive gas, ACID RAIN
nitrogen compounds auto emissions and electric power plants, Fossil fuels, soil bacteria, coal combustion
CO carbon monoxide colorless, odorless, non-irritating gas, incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, land clearing, cooking fires, Highly toxic
Metals pb lead, metabolic poisoning causing some level of mental retardation- 20% of inner city children, paint, water pipes, gasoline/ mercury- fish consumption/as arsenic- coal, smelters pesticides
Halogens bromine, fluorine, chlorine and iodine- reactive and toxic in elemental form CFCs 600 million tons persist phased out
Particulate Matter aerosols, asbestos, cigarette smoke, soot, ash, dust, pollen
VOCs - volatile organic compounds plants generate natural/ humans generate 28 million metric tons a year/ benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, vinyl chloride, phenols, chloroform, TCE trichloroethylene
Indoor air pollution usually higher than outside, smoking, asbestos, formaldehyde, vinyl chloride, radon, combustion gasses
Water resources use and management critical for life hydrologic cycle
Purification process evaporation and sublimation leave salts and sediment behind
Zone of aeration soil pores hold sir and water
Zone of saturation pores full of water
Water table line divides zone of aeration and zone of saturation
Aquifer porous water bearing layer
Recharge Zone areas water infiltrates to replenish ground water
rate of removal in greater than rate of recharge
Cone of depression drawn down area adjacent to a heavily pumped well
Salt water intrusion coastal areas where salt water infiltrates into fresh water
Sink holes cavern collapse due to excess removal of water, oil, natural gas
subsidence porous formation decreases in elevation
Fresh water bodies lakes rivers/ human use/ ecosystem importance
Wetlands 20% of US landmass prior to Europeans settlement/ >50% destroyed and altered/ habitat for many species filter sediment/pollutions
Impervious surface do not allow water to penetrate
Water pollution any physical, chemical, or biological change that impacts plants or animals
pathogens most serious/ typhoid, cholera, dysentery, coliform, listeria, salmonella, polio, guinea worm/ human and animal waste
Eutrohication water source becomes a bog/ increase in nutrient levels and biological activity
Thermal pollution water entering a water body at a higher or lower temperature than normal
Municipal water treatment 3 phase process
primary phase uses a series of screens to separate out solids
secondary phase treats effluent(liquid)- biological degradation of organic compounds
Tertiary phase uses chemicals to bind N&P and some metals
Constructed wetlands designed to treat municipal waste water
Clean water act of 1972 goal to make surface waters fishable and swimmable/ focused of point source pollution/ non point source still a problem
Layered sphere crustal plates slide slowly across the underlying mantle
Rock cycle relentless formation and destruction of rocks, minerals, and earth materials
Physical weathering physically breaking rocks or minerals into smaller particles
Chemical weathering water and/or natural acids combined with appropriate temperature cause chemical changes
Minerals have a defined composition
Rocks mixtures of minerals
Sedimentary rocks form from rock or mineral fragments that form new rock or evaporate deposit
Igneous rocks form from cooling of molten lava or magma
Metamorphic rocks form from existing rock subject to pressure, temperature, and/or chemical solutions/ source of metal ores- gold silver copper/ gemstones- diamond, garnet, emerald
Mining strip mining, underground mine, mountain top removal, open pit mines
Created by: larissa174