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ch 31

vital signs

Rate the number of respirations per min described as normal rapid or slow
intermittent pulse may occur during exercise or after drinking a beverage containing caffeine / beats occasionally skip a beat
metabolism the process of chemical and physical change in the body that produces heat
internal respiration is the exchange of gases at the cellular level
hyperventilation abnormally prolonged/ deep breathing
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. irreversible lung disease that results in diminished lung capacity
if an irregular rhythm is detected the apical pulse should be measured for a full 1 min to ensure accuracy
peripheral a term that refers to an area outside of or away from an organ or structure
respiratory homeostasis is controlled in the brains respiratory center
the physiologic factors that determine BP include *blood volume *peripheral resistance created by blood viscosity (the thickness of the blood) *vessel elasticity, and the condition of the heart muscle arterial wall.
rhythm is the time between each pulse beat.
arrhythmia abnormal rhythm pattern
continuous fever *rises and falls only slightly during a 24 hour period, *consistently remains above the PTs average normal temps range and fluctuates less than 3 degrees
intermittent fever comes and goes alternating between elevated and normal
remittent fever fluctuates considerably (more than 3 degrees) never returns to normal range
Pt with a fever usually have loss of appetite (anorexia) headache thirst hot skin general malaise and flushed face
digital thermometer process (read) in 10 to 60 seconds: tympanic (aural= ear)
temporal artery scanner uses an infrared beam to asses the temperature of the blood flowing through the temporal artery of the lateral forehead
rate .. number of heart beats (pulsations) felt in one min.
vessel elasticity is an arteries ability to expand/ contract to supply the body with steady flows of blood
atherosclerotic plaque fatty cholesterol deposits causing the vessels to become narrower resulting in smaller vessel lumens/ higher BP
diurnal rhythm pattern of activity or behavior that follows a day night cycle (affect v/s)
homeostasis internal adaption (change in response to environment factors multiple functions that attempt to keep the body's function in balance
chills and shivering may follow producing heat. as this process repeats itself, more heat is produced and the body temp. becomes elevated above the normal range. when more heat is lost than is produces the opposite effect occurs and body temp drops below normal range.
temperature balance between the heat lost and heat produced by the body, measured either in degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius
pulse is the alternating expansion and recoil of the arterial walls caused by the heart forcing blood into the aorta
bounding a term used to described a pulse that feels full because of increases power of cardiac contraction or as a result of increased blood volume
orthostatic V/S the measurement of B/P and pulse rate first in supine then is sitting and then is standing positions
stethoscope bell is used only in young pediatric PTS (understand that the bell of the stethoscope is used to listen to low frequency sounds)
ataxic an irregular, uncoordinated breathing pattern common in infants
asthmatic harsh breathing with prolonged wheezing heard throughout expiration
apenustic abnormal breathing pattern marked by prolonged inspiratory pauses. This usually is associated with brainstem injuries.
suspirious breathing with apparent effort signing
hypoxia an oxygen deficiency in body tissues (decreased concentration of oxygen in inspired air)
hypovolemia a decreased blood volume that may be caused by internal or external bleeding fluid losses or inadequate fluid intake
hypoventilation reduced rate and depth of breathing that causes an increase in carbon dioxide
cheyne strokes a breathing pattern marked by a period of apnea lasting 10 to 60 second followed by gradually increasing depth and frequency of respirations (hyperventilation)
pulse deficit can be determined by measuring apical pulse and radial at the same time.
if the PT has a pulse deficit the auscultated apical pulse rate is higher that the radial pulse rate this occurs because some of the contraction are not strong enough to produce palpable pulse.
pulse deficit a condition in which the radial pulse is less than the apical pulse : may indicate a peripheral vascular abnormality
blood pressure *reading reflects the pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries
each time the ventricles contract this is the systolic pressure the highest pressure the first pulse beat heard
when the heart is relaxed this is the diastolic pressure is the lowest pressure and its the last sound heard
volume pulse amplitude, reflects the strength of the heart when it contracts the force of each pulse beat is described as bounding or full strong or normal or weak and thread
the force of the heartbeat and the condition of the arterial wall whether hard or soft influence the volume. this condition also can indicate heart disease
sinus arrhythmia irregularity found in children and young adults in which the heart rate varies with the respiratory cycle speeding up at the peak of inspiration and slowing to normal with expiration
when blood is pumping against the artery walls with too much force over time this can damage your arteries causing your arteries too overstretch which causes weak places to form in the lining these areas are more likely to rupture or split open also the scar tissue makes it easier for things like fatty buildup called plaque or blood cells to get stuck there as they travel thru your art
plaque or blood cell build up narrows the artery this is called atherosclerosis blood has trouble passing even more pressure on the walls if an artery becomes completely blocked you could have a heart attack or stroke
breathing is under the control of the medulla oblongata: which is why we can hold our breath for a length of time when bloods co2 level rises to the point where cells become oxygen starved. a stimulus is sent/breathing begins involuntarily
homeostasis keep all functions of the body working within normal range
arteries are blood vessels that carry blood (oxygenated blood) away from your heart to other part of your body
a significant in orthostatic V/S signifies hypovolemia and dehydration: a positive test result occurs if the PT becomes dizzy or loses consciousness or if the pulse increases by 20 or more bpm the systolic Bp drops by 20 mm hg or more 2 min after arising from supine to sitting or from sitting to s
baseline reading measure BP in both arms in both a sitting and lying position as a beginning reading, you do this especially with a new PT
auscultatory Gap is the silent interval betwenn systolic and diastolic pressure. A PT might have an auscultatory gap if a pulse pressure of less than 1/3 the systolic measurement
respiration is the exchange of 02 and co2 among the atmosphere the blood and the body cells, oxygen is taken into the body to be used for life-sustaining body processes/ co2 is released as waste product.
repiration is both internal and external
external respiration = the exchange of 02 and c02 in the lungs
internal respiration= occurs at the cellular level when 02 in the bloodstream is transferred into as a waste product/ transported back to the lung for exhalationq
arterial plaques narrow the lumen (a tubular space or the channel within any organ or structure of the body ) which can increase the blood pressure
wheezing high pitched sound heard on expiration it indicates obstruction or narrowing of respiratory passages
pulse reflects the palpable beat of the arteries throughout the body as they expand during contraction of the heart with every beat the heart pumps an amt of blood aka the stroke volume into the aorta
orthostatic (postural) hypotension a temporary fall in blood pressure when a person rapidly change from a recumbent to a standing positions
the diaphragm is the flat plastic disk on one side
the other side of the stethoscope is the bell which is cupped
the two sides of the stethoscope can be used to listen to different frequencies of sound for a more efficient examination
the diaphragm is used for higher pitched sounds
lunges higher pitched- diaphragm
intestinal lower pitched- bell
murmurs easier to listen with the bell
knowing the difference will help you learn which side to use in different situations.
Created by: sno413