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Ocular Pharma # 10


Name the bodies first line of defense Skin, membranes, & secretions (tears, saliva, etc.) and corneal epithelium.
What is the difference between bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic? Bacteriocidal – kills organisms. Bacteriostatic – inhibits growth or multiplication of organism.
What is a broad spectrum antibiotic? One which has a broad spectrum of activity for both gram negative and positive organisms
What method do we utilize to classify bacteria? Gram stain.
Can you name three common gram-­‐positive bacteria? Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis, Streptococci,
Three common gram-­‐negative bacteria. Pseudomonas, Chlamydia, Neisseria (GC), E Coli
How do bacteria develop resistance? Through mutation (overuse or misuse of antibiotics)
Which two classes of antibiotics have high allergy rates? And what topical antibiotic has a high allergy rate? Penicillins and Sulfonamides. Topically, neomycin.
Can you name two systemic tetracyclines commonly used in ophthalmology? Minocycline and Doxycline, Tetracycline,
What is the downside of tetracyclines? Stomach problems, sun sensitivity, stain teeth & retard bone growth in children, cannot take with dairy products or use during pregnancy
Which macrolid antibiotic is now commonly used in the treatment of blepharitis both in a topical and systemic form? Azithromycin very popular now. Erythromycin works well, also.
What safe antibiotic is commonly used to treat childhood conjunctivitis and is effective vs. Haemophilus bacteria and pseudomonas? Trimethoprim.
Which class of antibiotics is now commonly used for surgery and treatment of severe infections? Fluoroquinolones
Can you name three fluoroquinolones? Moxifloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Besifloxacin are the newest;, Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin
What is the rationale for combining two or more antibiotics? Gives a broader range of spectrum (especially for those who do not know what they are treating)
What is the disadvantage of combining two or more antibiotics? Encourages resistance, and possibility of increased toxicity or allergies.
Can you name two fortified antibiotics? Amakicin, Vancomycin, Cephalosporin’s
When are fortified antibiotics indicated? When all other drugs fail or the organisms are resistant to other drugs
Which ophthalmic agents can cause kidney or liver problems? Penicillins, vancomycin, tetracycline
What do you know about viruses and their effect? Are smallest of infectious agents, invade human cells causing cells to reproduce the virus, most are self limited, can become dormant or latent in the body with reoccurrences are common in immunocompromised person (Aids)
Name two types of common viruses. Herpes simples and herpes zoster, Adenoviruses
How many antiviral topical and oral drugs can you name? Topical: Gancyclovir, Trifluridine; Oral: Famcyclovir, Acyclovir, Valaciclovir
What are the side effects of topical antivirals? Epithelial breakdown with prolonged use – usually over three weeks
What is the advantage of topical gancyclovir? Does not damage human cells, only the virus. Is more effective, and less corneal toxicity
What is the only approved topical antifungal ophthalmic drug? Natamycin
Can you name other anti-­‐fungal drugs? Amphotericin B and Voriconazole
Created by: Leequa