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Endocrine Review

Describe hypothalmus -influences thyroid gland along with the pituitary -serves as link between endocrine and nervous systems
Describe pineal gland -shaped like pine-cone -attached to posterior part of third ventricle of brain -secretes hormone melatonin
Describe pituitary -aka hypophysis -pea-sized organ located at base of brain -master gland -regulates many body activities -stimulates other glands to secrete their own specific hormones
2 hormones by posterior pituitary and their target ADH-vassopressin,targets kidneys Oxytocin, targets uterus and breasts
Describe thyroid gland -largest gland -H shaped organ -composed of 2 large lobes separated by isthmus
6 hormones by anterior and their target -ACTH, targets adrenal cortex -FSH, targets ovaries, testes -GH, targets bones, cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues -LH, ovaries, testes -PRL, breasts -TSH, thyroid gland
function of endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood stream
three types of steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex -mineralocorticoids (kidneys) -glucocorticoids (body cells) -sex hormones (female libido)
two hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla and their function -epinephrine and norepinephrine function- sympathetic nervous system (SNS)
function of the parathyroid glands increase blood calcium levels
where are the adrenal glands located superior surface of the kidneys
three disorders associated with the thyroid gland -cretinism -myxedema -Graves disease
signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome -moon-shaped face -fatigue -high blood pressure -hirsutism -purple striae
what causes acromegaly hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH)
signs and symptoms of type I (IDDM) diabetes Constant urination Abnormal thirst Unusual hunger The rapid loss of weight Irritability Obvious weakness/fatigue Nausea/vomiting
signs and symptoms of type II (NIDDM) diabetes Drowsiness Itching A family history of diabetes (FHx) Blurred vision Excessive weight Tingling, numbing and pain in extremities Easily fatigues Skin infections
what is the treatment for type I diabetes insulin
abnormal condition of low sodium in the blood hyponatremia
abnormal overgrowth of the entire body gigantism
abnormally low amount of calcium in the blood hypocalcemia
an organ that contains the islets of Langerhans pancreas
balance of the internal environment homeostasis
condition of being abnormally small dwarfism
condition of eating abnormally large amounts of food polyphagia
excessive accumulation of fat in the body obesity
excessive amount of calcium in the blood hypercalcemia
excessive amount of potassium in the blood hyperkalemia
excessive amount of sugar in the blood hyperglycemia
excessive distribution of body hair hirsutism
excessive secretion hypersecretion
extreme depletion of potassium in the blood hypokalemia
formation of glucose from glycogen glucogenesis
human growth hormone somatotropin
inadequate secretion hyposecretion
inner section of the adrenal gland adrenal medulla
lack of development atrophy
marked enlargement and thickening of the bones of the face and jaw acromegaly
mineral salts that carry an electrical charge electrolytes
outer section of the adrenal gland which secretes steroids adrenal cortex
presence of glucose in the urine glucosuria
produced in the adrenal medulla, raises blood pressure norepinephrine
protrusion of the eyes exophthalmos
surgical excision of the adrenal gland adrenalectomy
surgical excision of the thyroid gland thyroidectomy
test that measures blood glucose levels after a 12hr fast fasting blood sugar (FBS)
test that measures thyroid function Thyroid Function Test (TFT) and Radioactive Iodine Uptake (RAIU) tracer
the study of ductless glands and their secretions endocrinology
thyroid poisoning thyrotoxic
too little sugar in the blood hypoglycemia
tumor of a gland adenoma
underdevelopment of the internal secretions of male sex hormones hypogonadism
ACTH adrenalcorticotropic hormone
ADH antidiuretic hormone
BMI body mass index
DKA diabetic ketoacidosis
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
GH growth hormone
HRT hormone replacement therapy
K potassium
LH luteinizing hormone
PRL prolactin
RAIU radioactive iodine uptake
T3 triiodothyronine
T4 thyroxine
TFT thyroid function test
TSH thyroid stimulating hormone
Created by: DawnLangridge