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Final Hajnal Final

Chapters 8-11

Watson's lecture at Columbia in 1913 -Watson was invited by Cattell -Watson was 34 years old and from the Univ of Chicago -Psychology has failed as a science. -Don't study mental states, don't study introspection.
Facts about Watson (1878-1958) -Grew up in poverty in South Carolina -Graduated from Furman University -Studied with Dewey and Angell in Chicago -Liked psychology over philosophy -PhD in 1903 with Herbert Donaldson (neurologist)
Watson thought that animals were excellent subjects because... They were adaptive learners and problem solvers.
Comparative psychology -Big influence on behaviorism -Origins are with Darwin
George Romanes -Comparative psychologist -Introspection by analogy
Introspection by analogy Attribution of human mental processes to animals
C. Lloyd Morgan -Comparative psychologist -Morgan's canon -Conducted first experiments with animals
Morgan's canon Don't invoke higher mental processes if you can explain behavior with simpler ones
Edward Thorndike -Comparative psychologist -Cattell's student at Columbia -Associated with the Law of effect
Law of effect Successful behaviors and responses are learned (reinforced)
Pavlov's Discovery: Classical Conditioning -Pair bell with food -At first only food caused dog to salivate -After a number of bell + food pairings -The bell alone caused salivation
The goal of psychology according to Watson Predict and control behavior
Watson's thoughts about introspection and consciousness Introspection: not valid scientific method Consciousness: inaccessible, maybe not even real; not worth studying
Little Albert Experiment -Cause change in emotion in humans -Baby exposed to animals and not afraid -Started pairing the sight of rat with loud noise which induced fear -After a while, sight of rat alone induced fear -Followed Pavlov's procedure
Tolman -Neobehaviorism -PhD at Harvard under Munsterberg -Worked at Berkeley -Book "Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men" -Latent learning -Cognitive maps
Ideas asserted in Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men (Tolman) -Behavior is purposive and goal directed -Purposiveness determined by cognitions -Rats have cognitive maps -Experience builds up expectancies about the environment -Stimulus->Intervening Variables->Response
Cognitive maps Spatial representations of the world (Tolman)
Latent learning Reinforcement not necessary for learning
Clark Hull -Neobehaviorism -PhD at Univ of Wisonsin -Worked at Yale -Psychology is a natural science -Behavior quantifiable with a few exact ordinary equations -Reinforcement is necessary for learning and operates by means of drive reduction
List of drives, according to Drive Reduction (Hull) -Hunger -Thirst -Oxygen -Pain avoidance -Sleep -Sex
Hypothetico-deductive method (Hull) -Generated testable hypotheses -Considered good science
B.F. Skinner -PhD at Harvard -Called his science the experimental analysis of behavior -Worked with few subjects, no stats, just demonstration of behavior changes -developed the Skinner box -operant conditioning -Book "Beyond Freedom and Dignity"
Operant conditioning (Skinner) -"Reverse" Pavlov -How consequences of behavior, not the stimulus, affects behavior -How good behaviors promoted, and bad behaviors suppressed
"Beyond Freedom and Dignity" -1971 -Claimed that freedom is an illusion
Events that led to psychology being considered a profession -APA founded (1892) -First APA constitution (1895); objective: "advancement of psychology as a science" -1945, changed constitution to include "profession" -(1981) APA defined 4 professional areas: clinical, school, counseling, I/O
What defines psychology as a profession -requires long training -includes specialized knowledge -high standards of practice -continuing education encouraged
Walter Dill Scott -Known for work in advertising psychology -Developed over 100 tests for 80+ kinds of army jobs -Tested 3.5 million soldiers -Tests were originally developed for career screening in sales -Awarded with Distinguished Service Medal (1919)
Harry Hollingworth in World War I Worked at Army Hospital on "shell shock" cases (PTSD)
American Association of Clinical Psychologists (AACP, 1917) -Director was J.E. Wallace Wallin -Membership served as a credential to the public
Leta Hollingworth in the AACP -As secretary, formulated certain demands -certification and licensure exam needs -APA should list approved psychology departments where one can obtain a terminal degree in clinical psychology -AACP became part of APA, but still not treated well
Association of Consulting Psychologists (ACP, 1930) In 1937 developed Journal of Consulting Psychology
American Association of Applied Psychology (AAAP, 1938) Included clinical, consulting, educational and industrial
Early role of clinical psychology -Administer and score tests -Maybe interpret test results (medical and psychiatric communities fought this) -1930s: expanded from intellectual to personality assessment -Relied on Rorschach Inkblot test which was heavily used until 1970s
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and Minnesota Personality Inventory (MMPI) were added to clinical practice in... 1930s and 1940s
The role of World War II in clinical psychology -Provided next big step: providing psychotherapy -1946: 60% of VA patients were neuropsychiatric cases
1949 APA Conference in Boulder CO -Plan of study developed -Strong science background -clinical skills (1 year internship) -David Shakow was the creator of the scientist-practitioner model -Licensing laws in all states were passed and established by 1977
Development of therapy -Psychotherapy was the main method in the beginning (influenced by Freud, resolving interpersonal and intrapsychic conflicts) -Group therapy, created by psychiatrist Jacob Moreno -Behavior therapy (1950s)
Behavior therapy -Joseph Wolpe's systematic desensitization (overcome phobias, anxiety) -Skinnerian operant psychology
Walter Van Dyke Bingham (1880-1952) -Established applied psychology department at Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1915 -Hired Scott from Northwestern Univ -Studied mostly personnel psychology -Job analysis, selection, performance appraisal
Industrial/Organizational Psychology -Organizational aspects: human relations in the workplace (Hawthorne studies), productivity and job satisfaction checks -World War II gave it a huge impetus, Human factors-> engineering psychology -design of equipment-> efficiency, safety
Important People in School Psychology -Stanley Hall: child study movement -L. Witmer: 1st school psychologist (unofficially) treated school related problems in children and adolescents -Arnold Gesell: 1st school psychologist (officially)
Early work in school psychology -Identify mentally defective children -send them to schools for the feebleminded -study of gifted children (Terman and Stanford) -Leta Hollingworth: 1st textbook on gifted education
Important dates in school psychology 1935: NY, 1st state to offer certification in school psychology 1953: only 3 doctoral programs 1954: Thayer conference, 50 attendees 1971: 1st doctoral program accredited by APA
Current state of school psychology -200 universities with PhD programs -25,000 school psychologists -APA, Div 16, and NASP
The development of Counseling psychology -emerged later -prolonged identity crisis -originated in vocational guidance movement & personnel work in I/O -became more similar to clinical psychology Beginnings in 1920s:career counseling via intellectual and personality assessment tools
Influence of Carl Rogers in counseling psychology with the nondirective counseling program -no tests, no advice -active listening skills -change through self-exploration and understanding -help patients help themselves
Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) -Founded 1936 -Still exists as DIV 9 in APA
Helen Bradford Thompson Woolley -1903: Univ of Chicago, dissertation-first experim. study of sex differences -25 males,25 females -20hr long battery of tests: sensory, motor, cognitive, personality -Conclusion: no major inborn differences -Upbringing might be source of differences
Leta Stetter Hollingworth -Wife of Harry Hollingworth (advertising) -Couldn't get a job in NY, not allowed to work outside home -1916: PhD @ Teacher's College w/ Thorndike -Dissertation: Does menstrual cycle affect women's cognition and emotions during the period? No evidence.
Variability Hypothesis (studied/disproved by Leta Stetter Hollingsworth) -More men at low and high end of IQ -More males 0-13, more females 13+ at mental institutions; explanation: females can exist longer outside an institution due to societal pressures -Data from birth records: no sex diff in variability for 10 measures
Kurt Lewin -Came to U.S. in 1933, spent time at MIT -Considered part of Gestalt Psychology Movement -Became president of SPSSI in 1941 -Kurt Lewin award has been issued in his honor annually -Jew during Nazi era -Found Research Center for Group Dynamics @ MIT
Kurt Lewin's action research -Research on social problems is not enough, one has to find a way to use that research to change situations in real life -Situations and life space shape behavior (include both environmental and personal factors)
Scientific Racism Science used as a tool for racist views
R. Meade Bache (scientific racism example) -Univ of Penn, 1895 -RT increases with evolution -Native Amer. fastest, Afr Amer 2nd fastest, Whites slowest -Interpretation: task is primitive, does not require higher brain functions
Floyd Allport's 1924 book "Social Psychology" -Inferiority not just due to inheritance(worst case), but to culture (which can be fixed)
Otto Klineberg (non-racist explanation) Racist claim: Blacks in North had higher IQ than in the South Racist explanation: smart Blacks moved North (selective migration) Non-racist explanation: environment is the difference (culture, education)
Turning points in psychology on race -From 1920s more non-WASP psychologists were trained -Opposition to Hitler -10,000 PhDs awarded 1876-1920, but only 11 to Afr Americans
Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark -Civil Rights movement -Brown vs. Board of Education expert witnesses: self-esteem in Black children in segregated schools is lower -first time psychological research used in Supreme Court decision
Gestalt psychology -"The whole is different from the sum of its parts" -Holistic approach opposed reductionism (most of psychology and science) -Phenomenological approach: studying experience as it occurs, as it appears
Founders of Gestalt psychology -Max Wertheimer -Kurt Koffka -Wolfgang Kohler *These men would eventually overshadow Wundt in Germany
Max Wertheimer -German psychologist -Studied with Carl Stumpf in Berlin -PhD in Wurzburg with Ozwald Kulpe -Most influenced by Austrian philosopher/psychologist Christian von Ehrenfels -One of 3 founders of Gestalt Psych
Phi Phenomenon (Gestalt psychology) -Apparent motion from static pictures presented stroboscopically -Introspection cannot get rid of the illusion -Experience is different than physical stimulus
Gestalt psychology vs. Behaviorism -Experience is not directly knowable, behavior is (behaviorism) -Experience is the only thing worth knowing (Gestaltists) -Gestaltists believed in innate organizing tendencies of the mind manifested as grouping principles in everyday experiences
Zeigarnik effect (Gestalt psychology) Memory about interrupted or incomplete tasks is better than about completed tasks
Restructuring (gestalt psychology) -Find out how problems are represented in the mind -Reorganize representations and their functions -Kohler (1925) Sultan the chimp
Gestaltists in the USA -Koffka in 1924 at Smith College -Wertheimer in 1933 at New School for Social Research in NYC -Lewin in 1933 -Kohler in 1935 at Swarthmore College *Did not have a big impact or huge following initially, because no grad students
FC Bartlett -British psychologist -Head of psychology in Cambridge -Studied social and cultural influences on memory -Memory is just as much constructed, as it is reconstructed -Inherently prone to errors -Associated with "schema" and "War of the Ghosts"
Schema (FC Bartlett) Cognitive framework that organizes past experiences related to particular concepts
Proof that memory is constructive (Bartlett's "War of the Ghosts") -English subjects read story, retell -Recall story from Canadian Native American folklore -Errors consistent with English culture (boat-> canoe; seal hunt-> sailing expedition)
The birth of modern cognitive psychology -Hixon symposium on cerebral mechanisms in behavior (Sept 1948, Cal Tech) -First mention of the computer metaphor: humans as information processors
John von Neumann Human brains are information processing devices
Artificial intelligence (1950s) developed by... -Alan Newell -Herbert Simon: predicted in 1957 that a computer would beat a world chess master in 1967, it happened in 1997
Donald Broadbent's model of selective attention (Broadbent's Filter Model, 1958) -First flow chart of human cognition -Human as information processor -Messages>Sensory store>Filter>(Attended message)>Detector>To memory
Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) Memory model -First flow chart model of memory Input>Sensory>Short term memory to rehearsal or output or Long-term memory
Pioneers in cognitive psychology -Jerome Bruner -Roger Brown -Noam Chomsky -Ulric Neisser
Jerome Bruner -Categorization of concepts -Used introspection, thinking out loud methods
Roger Brown -tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon -flashbulb memory -how much of language is influenced by thought
Noam Chomsky -review of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" -nativist view of language -computer metaphor: language acquisition device
Ulric Neisser Book "Cognitive Psychology" (1967), coined the term
Created by: shaunalynne