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LA History

LAH LA History Ch 12

The political power shifted from the radical republicans to whom? Redeemer democrats
Without the strength of the Republicans, whose political voice was slowly silenced? African Americans
Who were the Bourbon Democrats? Who were they named after? There were the men that were seen as less than the redeemer democrats They were named after the kings of france whose royal family name was bourbon
Did the Bourbons want to change Louisiana? Still had prewar beliefs and believed they were superior to former slaves
What were the Bourbons who wanted to keep their wealth for themselves and not help the needy labeled as? Reactionary Bourbons
What were the Reactionary Bourbons’ attitudes toward government? They believed that the best government was the least government
How did the reactionary Bourbons feel about taxes? What they do with the money spent on some of these programs? They resented paying taxes for government programs, so they reduced the money spent on public schools and on programs to improve the quality of life for fellow citizens
Who was the Democratic party mostly made of? whites in the South
How did whites hold political power? How did they make sure they did this? They controlled the votes of the blacks. They made economic or physical threats
If the votes did not go the way the Democrats wanted them to, what would they do to the votes. How were they now able to get away with this? The votes were ignored; they could do this because the Returning Board was no longer around to check the votes because it was eliminated when Republicans lost power
Who was the first Democratic Governor after Reconstruction? What was his belief about people in power? Francis T. Nicholls-he believed those in power should work for the good of all
Who did Nicholls criticize for not paying their property taxes? What company did he also try to challenge? Wealthy bourbons and the LA lottery
What the name of the private company given a 25 year charter to operate in 1865? LA Lottery
What was the only benefit the state received from the Louisiana Lottery? 40,000 a year for the charity hospitals (less than 1% of what the company made)
How did the lottery company gain political influence? Contributing large sums of money to elected officials
Who was the top lottery official who became the state treasurer? E.A. Burke
What is E.A. Burke’s nickname? “ultimate carpet bagger”
What newspaper did the LA lottery own? New Orleans times
Why did lottery officials want a new state constitution to be written? Because they wanted the lottery to be protected by it
What happened to the lottery in the new 1879 constitution? It was renewed
What did lottery officials do to the governor’s term in the new constitution? Why? Reduced the term by a year; punishment for nicholls trying to fight the lottery
Why didn’t they take the right to vote away from African Americans? They were scared of the reaction of congress and afraid their workers might leave the state
What was the name of the first black college? Southern University
What were some other constitutional changes made to please those in power? Property tax lowered, more restrictions were placed on borrowing money for state improvements, powers of governor increased while legislator decreased, separate public schools, and schools weren’t well funded
Who returned as governor in 1888? Did his views of the lottery change? Were more people agreeing or disagreeing with him? Nicholls, no, more people were starting to agree
What was E.A. Burke accused of? Stealing more than a million dollars of state funds while he was state treasurer
What happened to the LA Lottery Company in 1893? Ceased its operations
What became farmers’ most important crop? Cotton
How did the crop lien system work? Farmers borrowed next year’s crop to pay this year’s expenses6t
What were some of the names of the organizations formed to help farmers? National Grange, Farmer’s Alliance, Farmers Union, Lincoln Parish farmers,
What did Farmers’ Union urge members to do? Work together to keep costs down
Who was known as the “People’s Party?” What was their statement of belief? The populists- that the powers of government should be expanded…to end that oppression, injustice, and poverty shall eventually cease in the land
What did Populists want? The government to help them, changes in money and banking, government owned railroads so that transporting goods would not be so expensive
Why did the sugar planters stop supporting the Democratic party? b/c president Cleveland did not support a protective tariff on sugar
What was the fusion movement? Republicans and populists saw an advantage if they joined together in order to end Democratic control in the state
Which party won the election? What were they accused of? Democrats-fraud (Murphy J. Foster)
What did Democrats intend to use the new constitution for? To maintain their control without bringing down federal disapproval
What were some of the requirements for voters added to the constitution of 1898? Own property, be literate, and pay a poll tax
What did these rights do to the freedman? Disfranchised (took the their vote away from the freedman)
What was the grandfather clause? A special section in the constitution that stated no man who had voted before 1867 be denied the right to vote as described in the constitution
Who wanted to take away the blacks’ right to vote? Bourbon Democrats
What is segregation? Public and social separation of the two races
What were the Jim Crow Laws? the segregation laws I the south named after a character in stage show
How long did the Jim Crow laws remain in Louisiana? Until the civil rights movement of the 1960s
Who were the Comitè des Citoyens? :french for “Committee of Citizens” – formed by educated Creole African Americans in New Orleans to fight for blacks’ rights (early civil rights African Americans)
What was the name of the Supreme Court case which said that the state could legally require separate facilities as long as they were legal.? Plessy v. Ferguson-Homer Plessy was arrested for riding in a white only car
What did the Jim Crow laws generate among citizens and voters? Violence and brutality
What did communities believe about justice? They believed they had the right to carry out their own justice
What is lynching? Mon murder usually by hanging
What group of people was targeted by both black and white people with acts of violence? Immigrants
What happened to the nineteen immigrants suspected of murdering the city’s police chief? They mob took them from the jail and lynched them
What was the convict lease system? A scheme for cheap labor; state leased (rented) convicts from prisons to work outside the prison
What kind of jobs did the convicts have to do? Dangerous work-build levees, railroads, and roads
How long did prisoners usually live? Why? 7 years because of the brutal working and living conditions
What happened to former slaves’ protection after the Reconstruction? They lost it, there was no one to protect them
Who were the Exodusters? Blacks heard of a better life in Kansas; risked their lives and took part in Exodus to Kansas
What happened to blacks who tried to leave? Why was this? They were threatened and sometimes physically stopped-possible loss of their labor force disturbed the planters
Were the freedmen who reached Kansas happy with the state? Why or Why not? No because they were treated just like they were in Kansas
Who were the Knights of Labor? (sugar plantation workers) and Southern Lumber Operators’ Association (timber workers) were early unions that attempted to improve wages and conditions for workers
What is a strike? Workers refuse to work
What happened when farmers tried to get workers to return to the fields? A riot was started, shooting, more than 30 workers were killed. Strike was over and workers returned to the field
Chapter 12 section 3 starts here
How could investors make a fortune off of the huge forests around Louisiana? By cutting timber
What was used to transport lumber easily? Railroads
In what years did the lumber industry rapidly grown? Between 1880 and 1920
What were two of the main resources that farmers harvested in South LA? Yellow pine and cypress from the swamps of LA
What was the name of one of the first major sawmills in St. Mary Parish? Pharr and William’s Sawmill at Patterson
What were lumber workers usually paid in? Scrip (paper certificates used in place of money and Usually only good at the commissary store run by the Company
Describe the working conditions of lumber workers. Work was hard and dangerous, missing fingers , if not arms or feet, falling trees or the slip of an ax could end the life of the lumberman
What was drilled in 1901 in Acadia Parish? The first successful oil well
How were people with oil on their land or people who supplied the oil industry rewarded? With money
Who completed the pipeline to Baton Rouge Refinery? What was the pipeline used for? Standard Oil Corporation-carried northwest LA crude oil to the company’s new refinery.
What was natural gas used for? Fuel and for lighting
What was discovered in 1869 in Calcasieu Parish? Sulphur
In 1914, new mining techniques helped LA produce how much of the nations sulphur? 75%
When did commercial salt mining at Avery Island in Iberia Parish begin? 1879
By the 20th century, which state produced much of the salt used in the U.S.? Transportation
Why were LA’s dirt roads not dependable for transportation? rain TUNRED dirt roads into mud, wagons got stuck
What was the first attempt Louisiana made on trying to improve the roads for transportation? Put logs on the road making a road they called corduroy
How did an investor from Minden come up with something better? What was the name of this road called? Covered road built through the swamp. Built of pine planks 18 ft wide and high
When did most of LA’s railroad construction take place? Between 1880 and 1910
How did companies get land for building railroads? Given land grant of more than a million acres of land in return for building the railroad.
3. How did the railroad companies make money on the land after the railroads were built? Company established towns and sold lots
By 1910, about how many miles of railroad track crossed LA? 5000 miles
Who was the engineer who proposed a system of jetties would increase the flow of the river and deepen the river’s mouth? James Eads
How did the jetty system work? The faster current swept away the sediment and deepened the mouth of the river
What new form of transportation did New Orleans showcase in 1909? Automobile
Who developed the method to mass produce automobiles in order to reduce the cost of cars? Henry T. Ford
How did people pay for the Model T automobile? Credit method-made monthly payments on installment plans
What law did the Bossier Parish police jury pass regarding automobiles? Automobile registration-licenses
What major event took place in New Orleans in 1910? What happened at the event? International aviation event-race between plane and automobile; record height of 7,000 feet achieved and speed of one mile in 57 seconds
What were trolley cars? Electric street cars
What new invention came to LA cities in 1880? Telephone
Why were gaslights better than kerosene lights? Kerosene lamps burned with a smoky light and hand to be cleaned regularly. Gaslights were clean and bright
What replaced gas lights in 1887? Electric lights
What did the Electric Company advise its customers to do? Burn 4 light bulbs at a time
What form of transportation made mail delivery more dependable? Railroads
What was rural free delivery? Rural residents no longer had to go to town to pick up their mail-it was delivered to their homes for free
What did the Montgomery Ward and Sears catalog pages contain? Items people needed at a price working people could afford
Section 4
What was the goal of the progressive movement? To improve the quality of life
Who did progressives believe should deal with local, state, and national challenges? The government
What is progress? The belief that humans could keep improving their society to make it better and better
What were three main ways progressives worked to reform society? fight poverty, improve living conditions, prison reform, outlaw alcohol, extend voting rights to women, break up large corporations and regulate businesses, and wanted voters to have more influence in government
Who was James B. Aswell? How did he improve the education system? What title did he earn? He was appointed as the state superintendent of education. Brought in qualified teachers, built new schools, and established a standard high school program, father or modern edu in LA
What is the workers compensation program? A government insurance program for those killed or injured on the job
What were some accomplishments of the progressives? limited working hours for women and children in factories,lend-lease system in prisons was discontinued,juvenile court system, began,improved funding for public schools
What were some of the accomplishments of the progressives (continued) conservation programs to protect the environment, conservation programs, improved roads, worker's compensation
Created by: NoelleBordelon