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Renal - clin med 2

Clinical Medcine

The kidney maintains pH balance by _________ bicarb, generating new bicarb, and _________ H+. Retaining, secreting
If pH drops, you ________ ventilation & __________ rate of H+ secretion by the kidneys. increase, increase
If pH increases, you _________ ventilation, __________ H+ secretion, & ________ bicarb secretion in kidneys. decrease, decrease, increase
ABG: pH 7.49, PCO2 28, HCO3 24. Diagnosis? Respiratory Alkalosis
ABG: pH 7.31, PCO2 50, HCO3 25. Diagnosis? Respiratory Acidosis
ABG: pH 7.55, PCO2 50, HCO3 30. Diagnosis? Metabolic Alkalosis
ABG: pH 7.33, PCO2 25, HCO3 12. Diagnosis? Metabolic Acidosis
List causes of non-anion gap metabolic acidosis (FUSEDCARS) Fistula (pancreatic) Uretero-enterostomy Saline administration Endocrine (hyperparathyroid) Diarrhea Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Ammonium Chloride RTA Spironolactone
List the causes of anion gap metabolic acidosis (GOLDMARK) Glycols Oxoproline L-lactate D-lactate Methanol Aspirin Renal failure Ketoacidosis
List the causes of Cl responsive metabolic alkalosis (VCEED) Volume depletion Cystic Fibrosis Emesis Exogenous alkali Diuretics
List the causes of Cl unresponsive metabolic alkalosis with a high BP (DHLH) Diuretics Hyperaldosteronism Liddle Syndrome Hydroxylase deficiencies (11 beta or 17 alpha)
List the causes of Cl unresponsive metabolic alkalosis with normal/low BP (HBAGH) Hypokalemia Bartter Syndrome Alkalotic agents Gitelman Syndrome Hypomagnesia
Respiratory acidosis is due to _____ventilation hypO (COPD, CNS depression, restrictive lung dz, etc)
Respiratory alkalosis is due to ____ventilation. HypER (anxiety, SAH, meningitis, drugs, altitude sickness, fever, pregnancy, etc)
Equation for calculating anion gap? (Na + K) - (Cl + HCO3)
Causes of a low anion gap? Multiple myeloma & hypoalbuminemia
_________ >10 mOsm/L suggests the presence of ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, acetone, isopropyl ethanol, or propylene glycol. Osmolar gap
If high anion gap, calculate _______. Osmolar gap
If non-anion gap metabolic acidosis, calculate ________. Urine anion gap
A negative urine anion gap suggests __________. diarrhea (GI loss of bicarb)
A positive urine anion gap suggests _______. RTA (impaired renal acidification)
List the etiologies of hypokalemia (EIII) Extrarenal losses Increased renal excretion Intracellular shift Inadequate intake
EKG: Inverted T waves, prominent U waves, ST depression. Diagnosis? Hypokalemia
Patient with 4 day history of vomiting and diarrhea presents complaining of weakness & paralysis. EKG shows abnormalities. Diagnosis? Hypokalemia
First test to order in hypokalemic patients to determine source of K+ loss? Urine K+ (<20 = extra renal, >20=renal)
Tx for severe hypokalemia? PO KCl
List the etiologies of hyperkalemia (DCH) Decreased renal fxn Cell leakage (or transcellular shifts) High potassium intake
EKG: Tall, peaked T waves, flat P waves, QRS widening. Diagnosis? Hyperkalemia
Patient presents to ER with crush injury to forearm from MVA. Complains of general weakness and paralysis. EKG shows peaked T-waves. Dx? 1st step of Tx? Hyperkalemia, Calcium gluconate
Calcium gluconate, regular insulin+D50, nebulized albuterol, sodium bicarb, & IV loop diuretics are all part of the treatment for? Hyperkalemia
Last resort treatment for hyperkalemia if nothing else works? dialysis
Metabolic acidosis leads to _____kalemia. hypER
Causes of chronic hyperkalemia? Aldosterone deficiency & renal failure
Aldosterone excess leads to _____kalemia. hypO
Aldosterone deficiency leads to _____kalemia. HypER
Drug class that can be used concomitantly with diuretics to treat diuretic-induced hypokalemia? Potassium sparing diuretics
Fraction of total body water that's extracellular? 1/3
Fraction of total body water that's intracelluar? 2/3
TBW in women calculation 0.5 x body weight (kg)
TBW in men calculation 0.6 x body weight (kg)
Intracellular fluid makes up __% of body weight. 40
Extracellular fluid makes up __% of body weight. 20
Extracellular fluid is further divided into _______ & ________ fluid. intravascular, interstitial
A water deficit should be calculated in patients that have ________ to determine treatment. hypernatremia
Equation to calculate serum osmolality? 2 x Na +(Glu/18) + (BUN/2.8)
Cell shrinkage is ? Dehydration
Decrease in extracellular fluid volume is ? Volume depletion
Cause of hypertonic hyponatremia? Hyperglycemia
Causes of isotonic hyponatremia? Hyperlipidemia, hyperproteinemia
Causes of this type of hyponatremia include diuretics, RTA, interstitial nephritis, CKD, volume replacement with hypotonic fluid, N/V/D, enteric fistulas, & 3rd space losses Hypovolemic Hypotonic Hyponatremia
#1 cause of euvolemic hypotonic hyponatremia? SIADH
Causes of this type of hyponatremia include TBW overload, edematous states like nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis, CHF, or renal failure. Hypervolemic hypotonic hyponatremia
Treatment for mild/asymptomatic hyponatremia? Water restriction
Tx of critical hyponatremia? 3% NaCl
List the etiologies of hypernatremia (NOC) Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus Osmotic diuresis Central diabetes insipidus
90 year old female presents with lethargy. Caregiver reports inadequate water intake. Dx? Tx? Hypernatremia, D5W
If unsure of cause of hypernatremia, which tests should you order? Urine osmolarity (>300=osmotic diuresis; <150= DI) ADH test (if responsive- CDI; not responsive - NDI)
ADH secreted independently of body's need to conserve water. Diagnosis? SIADH
There's a risk for _______ _______ if D5W is administered too quickly. Cerebral edema
Patient with a hx of DM presents with N/V, polydipsia, polyuria, & abd pain. On exam - Kussmaul respirations, tachycardic. Dx? DKA
Temporary incontinence is? Acute urinary incontinence
List the causes of acute urinary incontinence (DIAPPERS): Delirium (normal pressure hydrocephalus) Infection (UTI) Atrophic Vaginitis Pharmaceuticals Psych (depression) Endocrine (DM, DI) Restricted mobility Stool Impaction
Involuntary loss of urine accompanied by or immediately preceded by sudden urge? Urge Incontinence
Risks for this type of incontinence are: bladder inflammation, chronic bladder outlet obstruction, post-menopausal status, & CNS disorders Urge Incontinence
Most common etiology of urge incontinence? Idiopathic
Treatment options for this type of incontinence include behavior modification, Kegel exercises, estrogen, anticholinergics, Botox, & surgery Urge Incontinence
Most common type of incontinence in men? Urge incontinence
Incontinence associated with increased abd pressure, change in position, or sexual intercourse? Stress Incontinence
Most common type of incontinence in women? Stress incontinence
Etiologies of this type of incontinence include: Urethral hypermobility, intrinsic sphincter deficiency, urinary retention, detrusor overactivity, post-prostate surgery or after prostate radiation. Stress incontinence
Treatment for this type of incontinence includes: Behavior modification, Kegel exercises, peri-urethral bulking agents, suspension/sling procedures, or artificial urinary sphincters Stress Incontinence
Cough test is best to diagnose which type of incontinence? Stress
Incontinence due to incomplete emptying from impaired detrusor muscle contractility or bladder outlet obstruction. AKA "false incontinence" Overflow Incontinence
Incontinence commonly seen in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, & severe arthritis. Due to impaired mobility &/or cognition. Functional Incontinence
Cotton swab test is used to evaluate? Urethral mobility
BPH is due to increase in the # of epithelial & stromal cells in the __________ gland of the prostate. Periurethral
Decreased force & caliber of stream, hesitancy, post-void dribbling, & sensation of incomplete emptying are what type of BPH sx? Obstructive
Dysuria, urinary frequency, urgency, & nocturia are what type of BPH sx? Irritative
What labs should you order if you suspect BPH? UA, SCr, PSA
Drugs used to treat BPH? (3 classes?) Alpha blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, PDE-5 inhibitors
Gold standard for BPH surgical treatment? TURP (Transurethral Resection of Prostate)
Male presents with acute onset of perineal/low back pain, fever, chills, N/V, sensation of incomplete emptying, & dysuria. DRE shows a hot, boggy, & tender prostate. Diagnosis is? What is expected on CBC? Acute bacterial prostatitis, elevated WBC with left shift
Acute bacterial prostatitis is typically caused by gram ______ organisms and should be treated with ______ or ______ x30 days. negative, FQ, bactrim
Male presents complaining of recurrent UTIs, between which he is asymptomatic. Normal prostate exam. Diagnosis? Treatment? Chronic bacterial prostatitis, acute abx followed by suppressive abx
Male presents complaining of persistent perineal, low back pain with LUTS sx. He is afebrile & non-toxic. His hx is pertinent for anxiety/depression. Diagnosis? Treatment? Nonbacterial Prostatosis, counseling/physical therapy
Older AA male presents for yearly physical, complains of mild obstructive urinary sx. Worry about? Prostate carcinoma
Most prostate CA is found in the ________ zone. Peripheral
Which prostate carcinoma treatment has a lower risk of ED & incontinence? Radiation
Surgery to remove prostate in prostate carcinoma is associated with side effects of _____ & __________. ED, incontinence
Greatest benefit of PSA screening is between ages ___-____ 55-69
14 year old male presents with acute onset of scrotal pain following a soccer game. On exam, testis is swollen and tender and cremasteric reflex is absent. - Phren's sign. Diagnosis? Testicular Torsion
Definitive diagnosis of testicular torsion is by? Scrotal exploration
Bell clapper deformity is associated with increased risk for? Testicular Torsion
Male patient presents complaining of painful testicular swelling. He was diagnosed with Mumps 7 days ago. Likely diagnosis? Orders? Orchitis, scrotal US & UA
Male patient presents complaining of a dull ache in his testis, with pain radiating into the ipsilateral inguinal canal. Reports he recently had a Foley catheterization. On exam, + cremasteric reflex & Phren's sign. Likely diagnosis? Epididymitis
Treatment for epididymitis? Rest, scrotal support, abx, NSAIDs
Male patient presents complaining of vague testicular pain that worsens with valsalva. On exam - dilated, tortuous veins of spermatic cord of L testis. Diagnosis? Tx? Varicocele, NSAIDs & scrotal support (ligation or embolization if severe)
Male patient presents for yearly physical. On GU exam, small cyst on superior pole of epididymis. Transilluminates on exam. Diagnosis? Tx? Spermatocele, None (unless continued enlargement or pain)
Male patient presents complaining of painless testicular swelling that's worse after standing long periods of time. On exam, there is an accumulation of fluid in the tunica vaginalis that transilluminates. Diagnosis? Orders? Hydrocele, scrotal US (to r/o CA)
25 year old male presents complaining of "heaviness in testis" & gynecomastia. He reports a hx of cryptorchidism. Likely diagnosis? Testicular carcinoma
Most commonly enlarged lymph nodes in testicular carcinoma? Pelvic
Testicular tumors often produce _______ which can lead to gynecomastia. beta HCG
22 year old male presents complaining of dysuria and scant clear urethral discharge. + leukocytes, - culture on urine. Diagnosis? Order? Tx? Nongonococcal urethritis, urethral swab, Tetracycline/Doxycycline
19 year old male presents complaining of dysuria, copious urethral discharge and is uncircumcised. + leukocytes, - urine culture. Diagnosis? Order? Tx? Gonococcal Urethritis, urethral swab, Rocephin & Azithromycin
Nongonococcal urethritis is usually caused by what organism? Chlamydia
Envelope crystals on urine microscopy = what type of stone? Calcium
Type of stone that forms with hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia, low urine volume, and changes to pH Calcium
Foods like spinach, beans, nuts, soy, chocolate, & coffee are high in ________ and should be ________ in patients that have kidney stones. oxalate, avoided
Foods like bananas, melons, citrus, salmon, tuna, & cereals are high in ________ and should be _______ in patients with kidney stones. Citrate, increased
Foods like organ meats, tuna, & beer are high in _________ and should be __________ in patients with kidney stones. Purines, avoided
Coffin lid crystals on urine microscopy suggest which type of stone? Struvite
Women are more at risk for which type of stone? Struvite
Stone that forms due to presence of urease producing bacteriae? Struvite
Most severe type of stone? Struvite
Rosebud, Rhomboid, and Needle crystals seen on urine microscopy suggest which type of stone? Uric Acid
Which type of stone is common in patients that have metabolic syndrome (including gout)? Uric Acid
Benzene ring crystals seen on urine microscopy suggest which type of stone? Cystine
Stone associated with rare autosomal recessive disorder that typically presents in childhood? Cystine
40 year old male presents complaining unilateral flank pain radiating into groin with associated n/v and hematuria. Diagnosis? Kidney Stone
Gold standard for diagnosis of kidney stone? Thin cut spiral CT
More accessible, cheaper imaging for diagnosing stones? KUB
Initial imaging done when kidney stone suspected during pregnancy? Renal US
Type of stone that's undetectable on KUB? Uric Acid
General treatment for all symptomatic kidney stones? Hydrate, Toradol, Zofran, Flomax
Treatment for a struvite stone? PCNL (percutaneous nephrolithotomy) & abx
Stones greater than __mm are unlikely to pass on their own. 5
Older male presents complaining of recent onset of anuria and exhibits symptoms of metabolic acidosis. Cr & K+ levels are increased. Hydronephrosis on renal US. No hx of CKD. Suspect? Complete urinary obstruction
30 year old female presents complaining of dysuria, frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain. Likely diagnosis? UTI
A pregnant women has asymptomatic bacteruria. Do you treat her? Yes
Pyuria and nitrite on UA suggest what diagnosis? lower UTI
Most common pathogen that causes UTIs? E. Coli
Gold standard for diagnosis of UTI? Urine culture and sensitivity
Two most common abx used to treat uncomplicated lower UTI? Macrobid & Bactrim
Patient presents within 2 weeks of being treated for a UTI with another UTI, that's caused by the same pathogen. What type of UTI is this? Relapse
Patient presents 3 weeks after being treated for a UTI with a UTI caused by a different pathogen. What kind of UTI is this? Reinfection (95% of recurrent UTIs!)
32 year old female presents complaining of fever, chills, flank pain, and dysuria. Diagnosis? Labs to order? Pyelonephritis, UA, urine culture, & CBC
Women that have __ or more symptomatic UTIs within 6 months or ___ or more over 12 months should get prophylaxis. 2, 3
How long should continuous prophylaxis for UTIs be done? 3-6 months
Usage of spermicide containing products _______ the risk of UTIs. increases
Topical estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women _________ the risk of UTIs. Decreases
Increased muscle mass, eating cooked meats, and kidney disease all do what to the serum creatinine? Increase
Increased age, low protein diet, malnutrition, and liver disease all do what to the serum creatinine? Decrease
Obesity causes a decrease in SCr? T/F? False (no change)
Renin is secreted when there's a _______ in renal perfusion. Decrease
Aldosterone causes Na+ and Cl- ________, K+_________, and water _______. Reabsorption, excretion, retention
Which BP drug blocks reabsorption of Na & Cl in the DCT? Thiazides
Which BP drug blocks reabsorption of Na+, K+, & Cl- in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle? Loop diuretics
Which BP drug prevents Na+ reabsorption & K+ secretion? Potassium Sparring Diuretics
Which BP drug prevents reabsorption of HCO3 in the PCT causing indirect inhibition of Na+ resorption? Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Kidney damage or a decreased GFR of <60 mL/min for 3 months or more Renal Insufficiency
GFR <15 mL/min or on dialysis Renal failure
Sx resulting from loss of kidney fxn? Uremia
Patient presents complaining of progressive loss of energy, decreased appetite, N/V, & confusion. Pericarditis found on imaging. Etiology of these sx? Uremia
"Nitrogen in the blood"; elevated BUN, Cr? Azotemia
Alterations in handling of substances that occurs with CKD: Water ______, _____ potassium and phosphorus excretion, and _______ calcium reabsorption. Retention, decreased, decreased.
What do NSAIDs, aminoglycosides, radioopaque contrast, penicillin, Gold, penicillamine, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid, & tetracycline all have in common? Avoid in renal failure
Most common genetic cause of renal failure in adults (10%)? Polycystic kidney disease (PCKD)
Patient with acute abd/back pain, hematuria, UTI, HTN, palpable kidneys, and a ruptured berry aneurysm likely has?? Polycystic Kidney Disease
Patients with these disease should avoid contact sports and instrumentation on GU tract, stay well hydrated, and be screened for cerebral aneurysms. Polycystic Kidney Disease
Adult PCKD is autosomal _______, while childhood PCKD is autosomal ________. dominant, recessive
A patient presents with hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, salt & water handling abnormalities, anemia, mineral & bone disease, and sexual dysfunction. They likely have? CKD
Kidney damage with nl or increased GFR (>90) is classified as what stage of CKD? Stage I
A GFR of 60-89 is classified as what stage of CKD? Stage II
A GFR of 30-59 is classified as which stage of CKD? Stage III
A GFR of 15-29 is classified as which stage of CKD? Stage IV
A GFR of <15 or being on dialysis is classified as which stage of CKD? Stage V
Most specific diagnostic tool for diagnosing CKD? Renal Biopsy
Which dose is adjusted in renal insufficiency, loading or maintenance? Maintenance (also adjust dosing intervals)
Treatment for this disease may include protein restriction, statins, smoking cessation, ACEI/ARB, low K+ diet, sodium bicarb/citrate, EPO stimulating agents, Ca/Vit D supplementation, & phosphate binders CKD
Tx for patients that have an uncontrolled volume, uremic sx that can't be managed, failure to thrive, pericarditis, DM with GFR<15, or non-DM with GFR<10? Dialysis
Abrupt deterioration in kidney function, manifested by an increase in SCr with or without a reduced urine output Acute Kidney Injury
A creatinine >/= 26 within 24hrs or an increase >/= 1.5-1.9x the reference SCr is indicative of what stage of AKI? Stage I
An increase >/=2-2.9x the reference SCr signifies which stage of AKI? Stage II
An increase >/= 3x the reference SCr or an increase >/=354, or on dialysis signifies which stage of AKI? Stage III
Stage I AKI can be defined as <0.5 mL urine/kg/hr for >___ hours. 6
Stage II AKI can be defined as <0.5 mL urine/kg/hr for >___ hours 12
Stage III AKI can be defined as<0.3 mL urine/kg/hr for >____hours or anuria for____hours. 24, 12
Etiologies of this class of AKI include: Hypovolemia, reduced effective circulating volume, drugs, and renal artery stenosis Pre-Renal AKI
Etiologies of this class of AKI include: GN, tubular obstruction & dysfunction (ATN), drugs, myeloma, or sarcoidosis Intrinsic AKI
Etiologies of this class of AKI include: renal papillary necrosis, kidney stones, retroperitoneal fibrosis, carcinoma of the cervix, BPH, prostate CA, or urethral strictures. Post renal AKI
BUN-Cr ratio >20:1, FENa < 1%, urine sp gravity >1.020, & hydraline casts suggest? Pre-renal AKI
BUN-Cr ratio 10:1-20:1, FENa>1, urine sp gravity 1.010-1.020, tubular or granular casts, hematuria, and proteinuria is associated with? Intrinsic AKI
US showing hydronephrosis in an elderly person. This is most likely? Post-renal AKI
Approach to ______ AKI tx is hydration, eliminating toxins, treating causes, and giving diuresis if overloaded. Pre-renal
Approach to ______ AKI treatment is ordering CBC, ESR, consulting nephrology for biopsy, eliminating toxins, and treating causes Intrinsic AKI
Approach to _______ AKI treatment is to order CT without contrast, get Foley, & consider urology consult Post-renal
AEIOU indications for dialysis? Acid Base problems Electrolyte problems Intoxications Overload (fluid) Uremia sx
HTN, proteinuria, & RBC casts = ??? GN
Can be characterized by scrotal/peri-orbital edema, HTN, proteinuria <3g/24 hrs, hematuria (dysmorphic RBCs), edema, elevated Cr, & decreased GFR Nephritic Spectrum GN
Post-infection GN, Berger's Dz, Hep C, and SLE are part of the ________ spectrum of GN. Nephritic
Can be characterized by proteinuria >3g/24 hours, edema, HTN, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, hematuria, & oval fat bodies Nephrotic Spectrum GN
Minimal change disease, diabetic nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, & amyloidosis are part of the ________spectrum of GN Nephrotic
Microscopic or macroscopic hematuria with or without proteinuria & generally asymptomatic suggests? Asymptomatic Glomerular Hematuria
AKI, proteinuria<3g/24 hrs, hematuria, RBC casts, edema, & HTN suggests? Nephritic Syndrome
AKI, proteinuria <3g/24 hrs, hematuria, RBC casts, HTN, decreased GFR(50% in <3 months), increased ESR/CRP, +ANCA, & crescent formations on biopsy suggests? RPGN
MC in children;>3g protein/24 hrs, hematuria, edema, hypoalbuminemia, HTN, hyperlipidemia, & oval fat bodies on UA suggests? Minimal Change Disease
Hx of DM, albuminuria, end organ damage suggests? Diabetic Nephropathy
Membranous nephropathy is caused by? Lymphoma
Proteinuria 300mg-10g/24hrs, no RBCs or casts, "bland urine" suggests? Asymptomatic Proteinuria
Proteinuria >3g/24 hrs, HTN, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, RBCs & oval fat bodies on UA suggests? Nephrotic Syndrome
Recent sore throat, low complement levels, and +anti-streptolysin O titer suggest? post-strep GN
Gold standard for diagnosing GN? Renal Biopsy
29 year old male presents to ER post trauma complaining of muscle pain, weakness, & red-brown urine. CK levels are elevated.Diagnosis? Complication if left untreated? Rhabdomyolysis, AKI
RTA type that is caused by defect in distal tubule leading to failure of H+ secretion, severe acidosis, & hypokalemia. Type 1
RTA that occurs mostly in children that have Fanconi's syndrome. May also occur in chemo pts, use of acetazolamide, or outdated tetracycline. Causes failed HCO3 reabsorption in proximal tubules. Acidosis & hypokalemia on labs. Type 2
RTA that is a combination of type 1 & 2 Type 3
RTA in which the transport of electrolytes is impaired & results in high levels of potassium. Due to aldosterone deficiency or resistance. Type 4
A low urine specific gravity (<1.009) is due to? Excess H2o
A high urine specific gravity (>1.020) is due to ? H2O restriction (dehydration)
How do you estimate urine osmolality from specific gravity? Last 2 digits of specific gravity x 35
Leukocytes on UA indicate? inflammation or infection
Nitrite on UA? Gram- bacteria (& some gram +)
Bilirubin on dipstick indicates abnormal ________ function. hepatobiliary
Urobilinogen indicates ________ parenchymal damage. hepatic
If _______ are present in urine, may be due to DM, ETOH ingestion, vomiting, starvation, high protein diet, or acute febrile illness. Ketones
Glucose on UA usually signifies DM, but can also suggest? Hyperthyroidism, Cushing's, Fanconi's syndrome, pain, excitement, asphyxia, shock, anesthesia, pancreatic d/o, CNS d/o
Casts that are associated with exercise, heat exposure, pyelonephritis, or chronic renal disease. Hyaline
Casts that can be granular, fatty, waxy, epithelial, RBCs or WBCs Cellular
Cellular cast seen with nephrotic syndrome, lipiduria, & hypothyroidism. Fatty casts
The glomerular basement membrane, slit diaphragm of epithelial podocysts, & renal tubular cell reabsorption are all _______to the development of proteinuria barriers
Normal daily protein excretion? <150 mg/24 hours
Categories of non-nephrotic proteinuria? Transient, intermittent, persistent, non-isolated (microalbuminuria)
Subclasses of persistent proteinuria? Orthostatic, constant
Subclasses of constant persistent proteinruia Glomerular, Tubulointerstitial, Overflow
Etiologies of this type of proteinuria include fever, strenuous exercise, cold exposure, CHF exacerbation, seizure, high renin states, & pancreatitis. Transient
Type of proteinuria that occurs only when in upright posture? Orthostatic
Etiologies of hematuria? (TICS) Trauma, infections, Calculi, Surgery
20% of people with gross hematuria have? Cancer
Normal GFR in males? 100-125
Normal GFR in females? 80-105
BUN-Cr ratio of 15-20:1 signifies? Dehydration
BUN-Cr ratio of >15:1 signifies? Pre-renal/post-renal azotemia
BUN-Cr ratio <10:1 signifies? Renal Disease
Diagnostic study best for dx of cysts, tumors, PCKD, obstruction, & scarring in chronic pyelonephritis Renal US
Diagnostic study that can reveal stones, obstructions & show kidney size, shape, and calyceal anatomy. Intravenous Pyelogram
Diagnostic study that best for identifying calcified stones, & calcified renal artery aneurysm. Shadows may help determine kidney size & shape. KUB
Diagnostic study used for evaluating chronic UTIs (esp in children). Can detect vesicoureteral reflux. Voiding cystourethrogram
Diagnostic study used to visualize bladder stones, bladder diverticula, BPH, bladder/urethral tumors, interstitial cystitis, & urethral strictures. Good for working up hematuria. Cystourethroscopy
Diagnostic study used to visualize renal vessels to evaluate for secondary HTN, CKD, kidney masses, trauma, or complications post-transplant. Being replaced by CTA. Renal angiography
Created by: duanea00