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History Ch. 20-22

History Twenties, Great Depression, New Deal Ch. 20-22

Calvin Coolidge A conservative from Massachusetts who became the thirtieth U.S. president upon the death of Warren G. Harding in 1923.
Warren G. Harding The twenty-ninth U.S. president, whose election in 1920 brought about a decade of conservatism and benefits for big business.
Nineteenth Amendment A constitutional amendment ratified in 1920 to grant women the right to vote.
Public Works Administration (PWA) A government administration that Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Congress formed in 1933 to create new jobs, improve the nation’s infrastructure, and provide unemployment relief
Red Scare The period immediately after the Russian Revolution of 1917 in which Americans feared that a similar Communist revolution might happen on U.S. soil.
“Roosevelt Recession” A 1937 recession caused by Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s decision to cut back on deficit spending before the Great Depression was really over.
Herbert Hoover A former engineer and millionaire who became the thirty-first U.S. president in 1928.
Sacco-Vanzetti Trial The 1921 trial of Italian immigrants Niccola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, both self-proclaimed atheists and anarchists, who were accused of murder, found guilty
Crash of 1929 The massive crash of the U.S. stock market on “Black Tuesday,” October 29, 1929. The crash occurred after American investors dumped more than 16 million shares in one day. Within two months, more than $60 billion had been lost.
John Maynard Keynes A British economist in the early twentieth century who believed that deficit spending during recessions and depressions could revive national economies
Franklin Delano Roosevelt A distant cousin of former president Theodore Roosevelt who served as governor of New York before becoming the thirty-second U.S. president in 1933.
New Deal programs and policies focused on immediate relief, long-term recovery, and reform in order to revive the economy.
Schechter v. United States A 1935 case in which the conservative Supreme Court ruled that the National Recovery Act was unconstitutional on the grounds that the federal government had no business controlling intrastate commerce
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) An administration created by Congress in 1933 to help destitute farmers. The AAA reset prices for agricultural commodities at their high, pre–World War I prices and paid farmers subsidies to cut production.
“Bonus Army” A group of 20,000 disgruntled World War I veterans who marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 to cash in on the army bonuses Congress promised to pay them by 1945.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Body created by Congress in 1933 to put millions of young men to work on conservation projects throughout the United States.
Dawes Plan A plan created by Calvin Coolidge’s vice president, Charles Dawes, to save the European economy and enrich the United States by adjusting the payment of Germany’s war reparations from World War I.
Eighteenth Amendment A constitutional amendment, ratified in 1919, that banned the consumption, sale, and manufacture of alcohol.
Emergency Banking Relief Act A bill passed by Congress in March 1933 to give President Franklin Delano Roosevelt power to regulate the banking system and foreign exchange
Emergency Quota Act An act passed in 1921 helped to limit Southern and Eastern Europeans from immigrating to the United States.
Fair Labor Standards Act A bill passed in 1938 to establish a national minimum wage and a forty-hour workweek for workers employed by companies conducting interstate commerce.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) A corporation created as a result of the 1933 Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act to protect individual savings accounts.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) An administration that Roosevelt and Congress created during the First Hundred Days to provide immediate economic relief.
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act An act passed in 1933 to bar U.S. banks from underwriting stocks and bonds.
Hatch Act An act passed by the conservative Congress in 1939 to curb the Democrats’ ability to control elections with federal handouts.
Immigration Act of 1924 A 1924 bill that reduced the national immigration and placed restrictions on immigrants from other countries, specifically war-torn Europe and Asia.
Indian Reorganization Act An act passed in 1934 to permit Native American tribal councils to own land.
Scopes Trial An infamous 1925 trial. Tennessee outlawed teaching evolution in the public schools, but teacher John Scopes broke that law and was taken to trial. He lost.
Second Agricultural Adjustment Administration A body created in 1938 that paid subsidies to farmers to cut farm acreage in order to curb overproduction
Smoot-Hawley Tariff A tariff passed by Congress and Herbert Hoover in 1930 that raised the tax on foreign goods to nearly 60 percent.
Social Security Act A 1935 act that established pensions for the elderly, handicapped, and unemployed
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act A bill passed by Congress in 1936 (as part of the Second New Deal) that paid farmers subsidies to grow fewer crops in order to curb overproduction.
Teapot Dome Scandal A scandal during Warren G. Harding’s presidency in which the secretaries of the interior and the navy took large bribes to let a private company drill oil on federal lands near the town of Teapot Dome, Wyoming.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) A government agency specifically created to help the Tennessee River valley, which was one of the poorest regions of the United States during and prior to the Great Depression.
Twenty-First Amendment A constitutional amendment ratified in 1933 to repeal the Eighteenth Amendment, which had initiated Prohibition.
Wagner Act A 1935 act of Congress that legalized labor unions’ right to organize and bargain collectively.
Works Progress Administration (WPA) A government administration created in 1935 to hire over 10 million American men to construct public works projects such as roads, bridges, and public buildings.
What groups did the KKK promote hate for? Blacks, Jews, Catholics, and immigrants.
Prohibition Law forbidding the sale of alcohol.
Fundamentalism Belief that every word of the Bible was true.
Imperial Relating to an empire or emperor; having supreme authority.
Volstead Act Law that officially enforced the 18th Amendment.
Bootlegger sold illegal alcohol to people during prohibition.
What are the reasons European countries didn't pay their war debts? Germany was not able to pay reparation debts to Britain and France, so France and Brittan couldn't pay US. t pay US.
Created by: grantham10