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Neuro 40

Structural organization of the cerebral cortex

Pyramidal neurons NT=Glutamate; apical dendrite points to cortex surface; axon points down. III, V, VI
Spindle neurons NT= glutamate; in deep cortical layers; axon points down, leaves cortex; dendrites go to superficial surf. of cortex; VI
Granular interneurons NT=GABA; multiple short neurites; II, IV
Cells of Marinotti NT=glutamate; deepest layer of cortex; AXON POINT UP to superficial cortical layers; VI
I Molecular layer: synaptic layer; extra- intra-cortical axons and dendrites
II External granular layer: granule cells
III External pyramidal layer: pyramidal cells increasing in size as you go deeper
IV Internal granular layer: dense granular cells
V Internal pyramidal layer: large and medium pyramidal cells
VI Multiform layer: variety, pyramidal, spindle, Marinotti cells
Homotypical cortex Has all six layers, including defined internal granular layer (IV)
Heterotypical cortex AGRANULAR CORTEX, almost no int.gran.layer (IV). KONIOCORTEX: granular cortex reduced int. pyramidal (V)layer, but enlarged internal gran. layer (IV)
Homotypical cortex example prefrontal association cortex, stuff anterior to Brodmann 6.
Heterotypical cortex example AGRANULAR: primary motor cortex = Brodmann's area 4. KONIOCORTEX: primary visual cortex, Brodmann 17.
Hippocampus only 3 cortical layers; I, V, and VI
Primary sensory areas Visual, auditory, somatosensory.
Sensory association areas Visual association; auditory association, somatosensory association
High order association areas Parieto-temporal; prefrontal; limbic.
Motor association areas Areas 6 & 8
Primary motor regions Area 4
Cortex Inputs From modality-specific thalamic nuclei; from association thalamic nuclei; from non-specific thalamic nuclei; from brainstem (modulatory monoaminergic & cholinergic); from same hemisphere cortex (association); from other hemisphere cortex (commissural).
Modality specific thalamic nuclei VPL, VPM geniculate nuclei to primary sensory areas; VA and VL nuclei to motor cortex; anterior and lateral dorsal limbic thalamic nuclei to cortical limbic areas.
Association thalamic nuclei Dorsomedial, pulvinar, and posterior nuclei to association cortex (multimodal sensory info)
Nonspecific thalamic nuclei Reticular, intralaminar, midline to most cortical areas (involved in sleep/wakefullness)
Brainstem Modulatory monoaminergic and cholinergic inputs to multiple areas of cortex
Association from same hemi
Commissural from the other hemi
Cortex gives rise to: association/commissural fibers; corticospinal/corticobulbar tracts; corticothalamic fibers; corticostriatal fibers (to basal ganglia); corticohypothalamic fibers.
Bulbar Brainstem
Corticostriatal fibers Cortex -> basal ganglia; sensorymotor, associative, limbic activity.
Corticothalamic fibers Cortex <->thalamic nuclei
Corticohypothalamic fibers Limbic cortex -> hypothalamus
(IN) Modality specific and association thalamic nuclei project to Layer IV (internal granular)
(IN) Nonspecific thalamic nuclei project to diffusely all layers
(IN) Modulatory fibers synapse in different layers depending on origin and area of cortex where they synapse
(IN) Association and commisural fibers synapse mostly on layers I, II, and III.
(OUT) Layer V (internal pyramidal) goes to all subcortical regions EXCEPT thalamus
(OUT) Layer VI pyramidal and spindle cells (also has other cells) goes to thalamus
(OUT) Layer II & III (pyramidal cells, even though II is mostly granule cells) goes to ipsilateral & contralateral cortex
Created by: bisous82