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Exanthematous Dis.

Exanthematous Diseases

Since many exanthms look similar, how do we tell them apart? * History of the patient
**Rubeola (Measles)** What causes it, and how do we get it? * Caused by a single stranded RNA..... * It is spread by inhalation in to the nasoendothelium
Measles Cx Presentation ? * Fever and the 3C's (cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis)... *Coryza = runny nose
Measles Incubation, Prodromal Phase, and Final Stage ? *Incubation = 10-12 days with no signs....* Prodromal = HIGH Fever, the 3C's, and Koplik Spots (gray/white spots on the buccal mucosa)... * Final = head to toe massive rash as fever goes down...* When you notice the rash, the Koplik spots are already gone
Measles Complications = ? * Neurologic complications are more common than in any other exanthematous illness..... * Encephalitis
Treatment of Rubeola (Measles) = ? * Kids in hospiutals need to be in isolation for 4 days with rash onset.... * No true tmt exists, just supportive, and give Vit. A to prevent blindness.... * And get vaccinated earlier to prevent (MMR)
**Rubella (German or 3 Day Measles** virus strand and Cx = ? * From a RNA virus..... * We see milder measles prodrome with a lower grade fever and rhinorrhea..... * We see "Rose-Pink" skin and a rash that is from head to toe again.
Rubella Prevention/TmT = ? * Get the MMR Vaccine to prevent the spread to pregnant women... * If fetus is infected, we can see still birth or even congenital rubella syndrome (blueberry muffin look, cataracts, deafness, and cardiac defects)
** Erythema Infectiosum (5th Disease)** What causes it and how we get it ? * Caused by a DNA virus, Parvovirus B19... * High prev in school aged kids... * Spread = resp. droplets and high in Late Winter-Spring
Erythema Infectiosum Prdrome and Rash Stage = ? * Prodrome = Low fever, HA, and URI Sx (infectious stage).... * Rash = 3 stages --- 1) Slapped Cheek look 2)Trunk/Extemity rash 3)Wax and Wane 1-3 weeks... * When rash appears = NO longer infectious
Causes the Rash in Parvo ? * IgG abs appear during the 3rd week
Big thing ParvoB19 does to predisposed patients that have RBC issues ? * B19 binds to P antigen on RBCs arresting blood cell production leading to aplastic crisis in predisposed patients
**Roseola Infantum (Sixth Disease)** Is caused by what and soome basics ? * Caused by HHV-6 or 7—Herpesviridae family (DNA Virus).... * Attacks activated T Cells to cause overactive NK Cells.... * Does not show up UNTIL 6 and 12 months
Roseola Infantum Clinical Manifestations = ? * 3-5 days of HIGH Fever (101-106 !) with the absence of anything that could explain the fever at first.... * As the fever lowers, we get a truncal rash that spreads to the limbs and face
Skin we see in Roseola Infantum ? * BLANCHABLE macules and papules on an infant who had high fever for 3 days PRECEEDING the skin eruption
**Varicella (Chicken Pox)** How is it caused and how do we get it ? * Caused by the herpes virus family and is Spread by respiratory droplets or direct contact with lesions (incubation period of 10 to 21 days)
Varicella CxSx = ? * F/HA/Chills/Arthralgias 24-48 hrs before rash occurs.... * Rash = “dew-drop on a rose petal”
Contagious Stage = ? * Patients are contagious until at least 5 days after onset of rash or all the lesions are crusted
VZV lesion stages ? * Can see different lesions at different points in evolution at once.... * Can see well developed macules, papules, and vesicles.... * Can get BAD scarring if you get a bacterial infection at the same time
**Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease** What causes this and how do we get it ? * Agent: Enteroviral (RNA virus) from coxsackievirus A or B and get it from fecal-oral spread
When do we see H-F-M Disease and what are its CxSx ? * See in Summer and Fall... * Presents with fever, malaise, and a characteristic exanthem-at the same time
Specific Lesions we see in H-F-M Disease = ? * Grey-white vesicular lesions on the palms of the hands and dorsum of feet, as well as the butt.... * See visicles and erosions on the tongue and all over the mouth
TmT = ? * Supportive... *Pain control and oral hydration (bc mouth issues could lead to dehydration and anorexia)
Created by: thamrick800