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Science CRCT Review

Abiotic Factor A factor in an ecosystem that is non-living
Asexual Reproduction reproduction by 1 organism
Autotroph Organism that makes its own food through photosynthesis
Animalia The kingdom for all animals
Allele Form of a gene
Adaptation Genetic change to help an organism survive in an environment
Adrenal Gland one of the two endocrine glands located above each kidney
Antibody a protein made by B cells that binds to a specific antigen
Benthic Zone The Region of the ocean along the sea floor
binary fission THe process in which a parent cell makes a copy of its genetic material and then divides into two cells with identical genetic material
Biome A group of similair ecosystems that are charectized by climate,precipitation, and the tpes of organisms that live there.
10% rule 10% of original energy goes to next tropic level
acquired trait traits that are not inherited from parents but are like adaptations
active immunity the immunity that results from the production of antibodies by the immune system in response to the presence of antigens
adaptation A change in an animals behavior to survive
alveoli tiny air sacs of the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
archaebacteria unicellular prokaryotes that reproduce asexually. a modern taxonomic system made up of prokaryotes that differ from other Ps in the makeup of their cell walls + genetics
artery carrys blood away from heart
atrium the upper chamber of the heart
bias prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another
binomial nomenclature the system of nomenclature in which 2 terms are used to denotate a species of a living organism the first one indicating the genus + the second for specific animal
biodiversity the number and variety of organisms in a given area during a specific period of time
biosphere the part of earth where life exists
biotic factor Living factor in an ecosystem
bladder sac holding urine
body fossil bone of body fossilized
bone Structure in body holding body stable, makes blood
brain the mass of nerve tissue that is the main control center of the nervous system
brainstem stem going to spinal cord from brain
bronichole smaller tubes coming out of each bronchus branch
bronchus one of the two tubes that connect the lungs with the trachea
budding type of reproduction of bacteria
capillary a tiny blood vessel that allows an exchange between blood and cells in tissue
carbohydrate molecules made of sugar
carbon cycle the movement of carbon from the nonliving environment into living things and back
cardiac muscle involuntary muscle found only in the heart
carnivore animal that eats meat
carrying capacity the largest population that an environment can support at any given time
cartilage flexible tissue
cell basic unit of all living things
cell cycle cycle of cells living and dying
cell membrane soft outer 'shell' of cell, porous
cell theory all organisms are made up of one or more cells'; basic unit of life; all cells come from existing cells
cell wall wall that protects cell
cellular respiration the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
central nervous system the brain and the spinal cord; its main function is to control the flow of information in the body
chemical digestion large molecules broken down into nutrients
chloroplast an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
chromosome in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
circulatory the system that circulates blood + lymph throuhg the body
class level of classification
classification the division of organisms into groups, or classes, based on specific characteristics
cloning Making a genetically identical organism
codominance a condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a hetero zygote are fully expressed with neither on bieng dominant
commensalism a relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
community all of the populations of species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other
competition struggle to get resources
conclusion the end or finish of something; a judgement or decision based on reasoning
cytoplasm what the organelles float around in the cell
coniferous forest cone, needle like leaves, evergreen producing trees are conifers
control group Factor in an experiment that is a test with a controlled experiment.
controlled group something that is used as a constant and unchanging standard of comparison in scientific experimentation
cytoskeloton the cytoplasmic network of protein filaments that plays an essential role in cell movement, shape, + division
controlled experiment an experiment that tests only one factor at a time by using a comparison of a control group with an experiment group
consumer an organism that consumes another
dominant trait the trait observed in the first generation when parents that have different traits are bred
decidous shedding its leaves annually
dentrification the loss or removal of nitrogen or nitrogen compounds
development the process of changing or being changed
DNA replication the process of making an identical copy at a section of duplex DNA using existing DNA as a template for the synthesis of new DNA strands
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. a molecule that is present in all living cells and contains info for cells ( RECIPE FOR ALL LIVING THINGS !!! )
Digestive system the organs thta break down food so that it can be used by the body
Diaphragm a dome shaped muscle that is attached to the lower ribs + that functions as the main muscle in respiration.
Diffusion the movement of particles from higher to lower density
Desert A region that has little or no plant life, long periods w/out rain, extreme temperatures; usually found in hot climates
Dependent Variable variable that depends on independent variable
Decomposer organisms that decompose deceased organisms, recycles nutrients
Data a piece of information acquired through observation or experimentation
Excretory system gets rid of solid waste from body
Environment the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives in or operates
Enzyme breaks some nutrients into smaller particles that the body can use
experimental Group a group of subjects who are exposed to the variable under study
Endoplasmic Reticulum system of membranes that are found in a cell's cytoplasm + assists in the production, processing+ transport of proteins + in the production of liquids
Egg female sex cell
ecosystem a community of organisms + their abiotic,+ their nonliving environment
ecology the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another + with their enviorment
Esophagus a long straight tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach
energy pyramid a triangular diagram that shows an ecosystem's loss of energy which results as energy passes through the food chain
Extinction the death of every member in a species
evolution the process in which inherited characteristics within a population change over generations such that new species sometimes arise
eukaryote an organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a menbrane
eubacteria MODERN BACTERIA !!
Estuary an area where salt water and fresh water meet from rivers and seas. LOTS OF LIFE
Fallopian tube where fertilization occurs
fertilization the joining of an egg and sperm
family order of classification AFTER ORDER and BEFORE GENUS
field study research project carried out in the field
Freshwater biome No salt water, streams and rivers
Fungi kingdom made up of non green eukaryote organisms. they have means of movement reproduce by using spores + get food by breaking down things
function a special or proper activity of an organ or part
fossil the trace or remains of an organism that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock
food web a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem
Food chain the path way of energy transfer through various stages as a result of the feeding patterns of a series of organisms
Genetic engineering a technology in which the genome of a living cell is modified for medical or industrial use
grassland a region that is dominated by grasses that has few woody shrubs + trees, that has fertile soils + that relieves moderate amounts amounts of seasonal rainfall
genetic disorder abnormal conditions that are caused by mutations, or DNA changes in genes or chromosomes
Genetics the study of heredity and genes
genus the first part of the scinetific name of an animal
Geologic era A major division of geologic time
Golgi apparatus the organelle that packages and distributes proteins
growth the process in increasing in physical size
graduated cylinder a tool used to measure the volume of liquids
genotype the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for 1 or more specific traits
Gene one set of instructions for an inherited trait
heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring
hybridization the process of combing 2 complimentary single stranded DNA or RNA molecules + allowing them them to form a single double stranded molecule through base pairing
hybrid the offspring of 2 plants or animals of different species or varieties
homologous structures something scientists look at while trying to see how close 2 organisms are
habitat the natural home or environment of an animal,plant, or other organism
heart an organ made of cardiac tissue, 4 chambers, pumps blood
hypothesis a testable idea or explanation that leads to a scientific investigation
host an organism from which a parasite takes food or shelter
hormone a substance that is made in one cellular tissue + that causes a change in another cell tissue in a different part of the body
heterozygous describes an individual that has 2 different alleles for a trait
homozygous identical alleles for the trait
heterotroph organism that has to catch its own food
herbivore organism that only eats plants
invertabrae an animal that does not have a backbone
integumentary system the organ system that forms a protective covering on the outside of the body
immune system the cells + tissues that recognize + attack foreign substances in the body
inherited trait the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism
infrence a conclusion based on basis of evidence and reasoning
incomplete dominance a genetic situation in which one allele does not completely dominate another allele+ therefore results in a new phenotype
inbreeding the process of crossing 2 organisms with similar or alike alleles
impulses the electrical neurons send out
independent variable in an experiment, the factor that is deliberately manipulated
intertidal zone sea grasses,periwinkle snails, + herons are common in an intertidal zone. sea stars + enenomes often live on rocky shores
Created by: SokolFamily