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LA History

LAH Chapter 9

antebellum- before war time period
immigrant- those who move into a new country in order to settle there
What does the root Anti mean? before
What does bellum me? war
Summarize the event that had just taken place in Louisiana. the British. All the people of Louisiana had just banned together to fight
What was significant about the people of Louisiana uniting together to fight their enemy, the British? For the first time it didn’t matter what race/religion they were. They all worked together
How long did this feeling of unity last? What made it end? The Americans and the other cultures started to resent and criticize the others’ way of life.
How did the following groups of people affect the new American?
How did the Creoles affect the new America? descendants of early French and Spanish colonists, spoke French, doubled the population of the city, strengthened the Creole culture
How did the Free People of Color- fens de couleur libre, many were educated and considered middle class, legal rights of free people of color fell between the rights of whites and those of slaves. More restrictions were placed on free men of color than of French and Spanish
How did the Foreign French affect the new American- These people offended the Creoles, but their political skills were valued.
How did the Irish Immigrants affect new America immigrated due to potato famine, came over on ships. took dangerous jobs, less valued than slaves
How did the Germans affect new America- fled Germany after failed revolution, half were Catholic, offended Protestant Americans, loved to drink in beer on Sundays
How did the pioneers- English and Scots-Irish roots affect new America? settled in North Louisiana and Florida Parishes. They were given land grants from the other southern states- had
How did the Acadians affect new America simple life style on prairies and bayous. fared, fished, spoke French, cattle ranches (vacheries
How did the Native Americans affect new America Caddo sold their land and moved to Indian Territory (Oklahoma today). Groups remaining lived in forests and along small waterways
How did the Slaves affect new America- on free time life centered around slave quarters, dancing, singing, cooking
Describe how Americans treated free people of color. They had less rights than of whites and more rights than slaves.
How did the Creoles react to the “foreign French?” They were offended by the “foreign French” peoples take-charge attitude, but they valued their political skills.
Describe the treatment of the Irish immigrants They came over on overcrowded ships where most of them died before reaching New Orleans. They did the most dangerous work when they got over here for the cheapest pay.
What were some of the economic motivations for slavery? the more slaves, the more crops that could be produces, the more money plantation owner would make
Faction- a small group with common goals within a larger group.
Compromise- gives a way a little in its demands in order to settle a disagreement.
Depression- a severe, continued downturn in the economy where sales and prices drop, manufacturing decreases, businesses close, banks fail, and people lose their jobs
What did the Creole leader mean when he said that Virginia would run out of sons before Louisiana could elect one of its own? This was said because Louisiana was always run by other people, and the tradition continued when they became a part of the U.S. This was a sarcastic way of saying they would have to run out of basically all other people before a Creole would be elected.
Why weren’t the National party issues important to Louisiana at this point in time? They were a brand new state so it was trying to just develop; all of the elections seem to focus on the Americans being AGAINST any Creole.
What was important to the people outside of New Orleans- cotton and sugar planters resented New Orleans’s influence on state politics. They didn’t agree on the ways the government should help the economy.
What was important to the settlers of North Louisiana believed the government neglected their area of the state. Their population had grown but the boundaries were not reapportioned. They were not fully represented.
Suffrage the right to vote
With whom was the underlying conflict in the state? Why? The Americans and the Creoles. The Americans and the Creoles made an agreement to alternate between American and Creole governors. This compromise was eventually broken.
Make a list of the governors from this time in Louisiana. Indicate each of the leader’s culture background. Explain some of these issues developing in Louisiana government. William C.C. Claiborne- American Jacques Villere-Creole who worked out compromises between the two groups. Thomas Boiling Robertson-American- aggressive who increased the conflicts After these three, compromise for alternating governors was abandoned.
Summarize the issues and the reasons for these issues regarding the “new capital.”- The American legislators objected to meeting in New Orleans because it was the center of Creole Power.
power struggles in the legislature- Everything was spoken in either French or English, with translation immediately following. Everything was spoken in either French or English, with translation immediately following.
Tension was relieved with the "new capital snd the legislature when... Marquis de Lafayette visited New Orleans. His French heritage and heroic role in the American Revolution brought both Creoles and Americans out to cheer him.
Summarize the Democratic-Republican Party- Led by Andrew Jackson. He distrusted the wealthy upper class and its control of the political system. They believed that that all people had the right to participate in their government. He was the candidate of the “common man."
Summarize The Whig Party- This was created to oppose Jackson’s party. Many Creoles joined this party. Henry Clay was the leader of the Whigs. They supported protective tariffs to keep out foreign competition. Sugar planters were attracted to the Whig party.
Who was Alexander Porter? an early Louisiana Whig ledger. Originally from Ireland, he became a prosperous sugar planter. The conflicts over slavery killed the Whig party.
The American Party- This party was opposed to immigrants and Catholics. The members of this party were known as “Know Nothings” because they always answered “I know nothing”. They wanted elected offices to be limited to US citizens. They blamed immigrants for the problems
Who gave Louisiana their first strong interest in national politics? Why? Andrew Jackson – The people remembered the hero of the Battle of New Orleans and helped elect him president in 1828. He helped pass suffrage to all white males over 21.
How did politics affect social life? Social life was enhanced by all of the political campaigning due to all of the campaigning activities such as barbeques and bands playing for all who gathtered.
Compare political campaigning in the 1830’s with the political campaigning today. Give examples of how they are similar. Campaigns in both days held gatherings to deliver speeches, which includes food and music. Also, candidates continue to run on different platforms claiming they are the best choice and their opponent is either not qualified or is “crooked.”
Why was a new constitution needed? The first constitution limited voting rights and representation. The Panic of 1837 showed that the bank needed economic and banking controls.
What changes did the new constitution implement? Owning property was no longer a requirement to vote or to hold office; however it was still limited to white males 21 years of age.
Explain what each group wanted in the new constitution and why? Each group wanted more voting rights so they would control the legislature and have the political power.
What did New Orleans want with the new constitution? wanted to count the number of voters to determine legislators
What did the planters want in the new constitution? The planters wanted to count total population including slaves.
What was the end result with the new constitution? In compromise, the two parties shared powers. Representation in the House of Representatives was based on the number of voters. The senate was based on total population.
Overall, what was the major argument that led to the new constitution? Representation
What werethe two major political factions that existed in Louisiana during the antebellum period? What was the end result? Creoles and Americans
Name the three political parties that formed during the antebellum period. Whigs, Democratic-Republicans, Know Nothing
What was the end result of the two major political factions that existed in Louisiana during the antebellum period?
exports- goods sent or sold to another country
factor- a commercial agents who represented the planter in a sale of a crop and earned a percentage of the profit
canal- manmade waterways that connects rivers and bayous
internal improvements- roads, bridges, canals, other transportation needs
manifest destiny- the belief that the entire continent awaited the arrival of the Americans
Why did the plantation economy rely on the New Orleans port? They needed the port to export their goods to other world ports.
How did New Orleans port rank compared to the other ports in the world? It was second in the U.S. in size. NY was largest. Only three world ports had a larger export volume. New Orleans was the state’s commercial urban center.
Capital- money that could be put into or loaned to businesses to help them grow
What did New Orleans develop into? The banking center for Louisiana
Why did the growing economy require investment capital? People needed loans to buy land. Those who operated businesses or plantations needed to borrow money to pay expenses.
Why did a factor system develop? The planters’ need for quick financial and business assistance.
How could the factor help the planter? represent planter at sale, advance money to planter, buy needed goods for planter, co-signed loans for planter
What were the effects of banking crisis of 1837? many people could not repay loans
How did Louisiana deal with the banking problems? Through new laws and provisions in the constitution of 1845.
What invention positively affected the cotton crop in Louisiana? Eli Whitley’s cotton gin in 1793
What did the cotton gin do? removed the cotton seeds from the cotton fibers
Major cash crops for Louisiana- cotton, sugar
How did the plantation system work? a farmer could grow a few acres of cotton with only his family to help. As his profits increased, the farmer bought more land and planted more cotton
What increased the demand for cotton? The industrial progress- steam engines, automatic spinning machines, and power looms made it easier and cheaper to produce cloth
What crop required more capital? Why? Sugar plantations- made more profits than cotton plantations but required more capital investment of workers and equipment
Why were the sugar plantations so successful? The climate in Louisiana was perfect for growing sugar cane. The immigrants came from Haiti brought their sugar-producing skills to Louisiana.
Who was Norbert Rillieux? A free man of color from New Orleans who invented a vacuum pan evaporator for refining sugar
What did the vacuum pan Rillieux invented do? It resulted in finer, whiter sugar with a huge reduction in costs and labor. The device made the crop even more profitable.
Who was John Burnside? He owned over 98,000 acres of land and 1,000 slaves.
Why were slaves important on the plantations? They provided labor producing plantation crops. They also did basic manual labor, working in homes, and performed skilled tasks such as blacksmiths and coopers (barrel makers)
What was on overseer? A person hired to supervise the slaves work
Who was a driver? slaves held responsible for the work of other slaves
What does “can to can’t” mean? This represents the slaves work day- meaning from daylight (can see) to dark (can’t see)
Punishment for slaves- from mild to harsh and extremely cruel
What does paternalistic mean- slave owner felt responsible for the slaves but still controlled all aspects of their lives.
Farmers- Not usually slave owners, mainly concerned with feeding their family, generally owned just a enough land to raise crops for their own uses. They also raised cattle and hogs.
What was transportation like during this time? This was very difficult! Wagons pulled by oxen would often get stuck in the muddy wilderness roads on the way to market to sell their crops.
Why was water travel easier? It was easier than trying to build a road. It was faster.
What was the importance of the waterways? They transported on the rivers and canals.
What is a canal? manmade waterways that connected Louisiana’s rivers and bayous
Why were levees needed? to protect the plantation economy
Who had always been responsible for maintaining the levees? Plantation owners
When and why did the state create the Board of Public Works? In 1832 to give special attention to the waterways and to develop a system of levee districts to maintain levee sections. This all was halted during the Civil War.
What are internal improvements? roads, bridges, canals, other transportation needs
What was the first railroad in the area? Where was it? Pontchartrain Railroad – 1831- six-mile-track ran between New Orleans and Lake Pontchartrain
Why were the railroads so badly needed? For the South to compete with the North
Summarize the progression of the rail lines in the South. The state and the city of New Orleans helped finance the railroad building. By the 1850’s, three major railroad lines had been funding in this way.
What were the three major railroad lines? 1. New Orleans to Nashville 2. New Orleans to Texas 3. Shreveport to Vicksburg
What was the only port larger than New Orleans in the antebellum U.S. NY
What were the duties of a factor? The factor represented the planter in the sale of a crop and earned a percentage of the profit. Factors might advance money to the planter or buy needed goods.
What effect did Nor5bert Rillieux have on Louisiana agriculture? He invented the vacuum pan evaporator to refine sugar into a finer, whiter product with less cost
What was the major means of transportation in antebellum Louisiana? Steamboat
Who coined the phrase manifest destiny? Journalist, John L O’Sullivan
What is manifest destiny? The destiny of the Americans to overspread the continent
Summarize the issues that led to the Mexican War. Mexican Government offered Texas land to Americans willing to become Mexican citizens and Catholics. The plan backfired when the Americans in Texas decided they wanted their independence. The Texas Revolution (1835-1836) was fought and Louisiana volunteer
Why did the Southern states want Texas as a part of the U.S. It would be a slave state.
Explain James K Polk’s platform for the 1844 presidential election. His platform stressed “manifest destiny”. His victory convinced Congress that the country wanted Texas annexed into the U.S
When did Texas official become a state? December 29, 1845
Why did Mexico break off diplomatic relations with the U.S. Due to the annexation of Texas
What issue did Mexico and Texas still have? They still fought over the boundary between Mexico and Texas
Who was sent to negotiate the conflict between Mexico and Texas? Louisianian John Slidell
What happened when Slidell’s negotiations to solve the conflict between Mexico and Texas did not succeed? President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to more the American army to the Rio Grande. Mexican troops fired on Taylor’s army.
What was the outcome of the war? After 16 months, the war ended with an American victory. Taylor became a national hero.
List the causes of the Mexican War. Americans believed in manifest destiny and after Mexico offered Texas land to Americans if they became Mexican citizens. The plan backfired and Texas wanted their independence. Went Texas Revolution to gain its independence. The North and the South disagr
Define the term – Tutor private tutor
How did New Orleans rank in size to other cities in the United States? 4th
Americans built what kind of neighborhoods? What part of New Orleans is that today? Neighborhoods with architectural styles The Garden District
Where did the Creoles live? Vieux Carre, French Quarter
What was the New Orleans Picayune? The newspaper of the time
What was it named after? A coin worth 6 ½ cents, which was also the price of the newspaper
What were the problems with mail delivery in the 1800’s? The dirt roads became extremely muddy and often were not passable. Mail carriers had to pass through rivers and bayous, too. News took two weeks to arrive from New York.
What were some of the issues with the news published in the newspapers? They were funded by different political party leaders, influenced public opinion, slanted their views.
What dramatically communication in 1848? The telegraph
What obstacles did the telegraph present to New Orleans? Floods, storms, fallen trees, etc. quickly brought down telegraph lines.
Who ran the first schools in colonial Louisiana? Nuns and priests
Who was John James Audubon? Taught drawing to children at Oakley Plantation
What is Audubon famous for? Paintings of birds
What did the Constitution of 1845 do for education? Established the first free public schools and fixed school age between six and sixteen
What diseases where most dangerous at the time? Cholera and yellow fever
France and Spain had only which religion in colonial Louisiana? Catholic
What is the name off the Cathedral facing Jackson Square? St. Louis Cathedral
What does the St. Louis Cathedral symbolize? The Catholic Church in Louisiana
After Protestants flocked to the U.S. they voted to establish which church denomination first? Episcopal
What was the Second Great Awakening? What did it do? A Protestant revival, sent ministers on horseback to preach and to establish protestant churches
What was a brush arbor? A make shift church where people would camp out for days at revival meetings.
Who was Touro? A wealthy member of the Jewish community who made contributions to the city
What did Touro do for the city? Donated money for a hospital, library and parks
What were typical types of entertainment for New Orleans? Opera, dancing, food, horse racing
How did the telegraph change communication? It made communication faster
What were the two deadliest diseases in antebellum Louisiana? Cholera and yellow fever
What forms of entertainment did the people of antebellum Louisiana enjoy? Opera, traveling troupes, dancing, horse racing
Created by: NoelleBordelon