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7th grade Chapter 7

Animal Reproduction and Behavior

1. What is asexual reproduction? This is where one parent produces a new organism identical to itself.
2. What is budding? This is where a new animal grows out of the parent and breaks off.
3. What is the 'cut in half' method? Certain kinds of worms can form whole new worms from each cut piece.
4. What is sexual reproduction? This is where a new animal is developed after a male sperm cell and a female egg cell join.
5. What is an advantage to asexual reproduction? An parent can quickly produce many identical offspring.
6. What is a disadvantage to asexual reproduction? The offspring have no variation from the parent and may not survive changes in the environment.
7. What is an advantage to sexual reproduction? The parents have the advantage of producing offspring with new combinations of DNA.
8. What is a disadvantage to sexual reproduction? It requires finding a mate and the development of offspring takes a longer time.
9. What type of reproduction do most vertebrates, including mammals use? Sexual reproduction is used by most of these animals. It uses sperm and egg cells.
10. What organisms produce both eggs and sperm and individuals of these species rarely fertilize themselves, they will fertilize the eggs of another individual. What are some of these animals? These animals include worms, mollusks and fish.
11. What is the reproductive cycle of a sponge? 1. An adult sponge releases sperm. 2. Sperm enter another sponge and fertilize an egg. 3. A larva develops. 4. Water currents carry the larva away. 5. The larva settles on a hard surface. It develops into an adult sponge.
12. What is a larva? This is an immature form of an animal that looks very different from the adult.
13. What is the reproductive cycle of a cnidarian? 1. Adult medusa reproduce sexually by releasing sperm & egg. 2. Sperm cell fertilizes egg cell. 3. Egg develops into larva. 4. Larva attaches to hard surface & develops into polyp. 5. Parts of polyp may break away. Form of asexual reproduction. 6. Ea
14. What is a medusa? This is a body form of a cnidarian that looks like an open umbrella.
15. What is a polyp? This is a body form of a cnidarian that loods like an upright vase.
16. What is external fertilization? This fertilization occurs outside of the female's body. First, the female 'lays' eggs, then the male fertilizes them.
17. What animals use external fertilization? Many fish, amphibians and aquatic invertebrates use this type of fertilization.
18. What is internal fertilization? This fertilization occurs inside the female's body. The male releases sperm directly into the female's body, where the eggs are located.
18. What is the gestation period? The length of time between fertilization and birth. Opossums have the shortest at 13 days and African elephants have the longest at 22 months.
19. What is development? Changing from simple to a more complex life form after fertilization.
20. What are amniotic eggs? These are the eggs of land vertebrates such as reptiles and birds.
21. What are amniotic eggs covered with? They are covered with membranes and a leathery shell while still inside the parent's body.
22. Where does development occur? It depends on the animal. Egg laying animals occur in the egg. Birds and reptiles occur in amniotic eggs.
23. How do egg retaining animals develop? The embryo gets all of its nutrients from the egg's yolk. The egg hatches while still inside the mother, examples are reptiles, fish and amphibians.
24. What is the placenta? An organ through which materials are exchanged between the embryo and the mother.
25. Where do developing placental mammals get their nutrition? They get the nutrition from the placenta. Their blood does not mix. Birth takes place when the embryo is developed enough.
26. What is metamorphosis? Major body changes that take place when developing from young organisms into adults. Young organisms that go through this look nothing like they do as adults. An example is crustaceans.
27. What is complete metamorphosis? This cycle has four stages: egg, larva, pupa, adult. An egg hatches into larva which looks like a worm. Next it becomes a pupa and then an adult.
28. What is a pupa? A stage of metamorphosis in which the insect is enclosed in a protective covering. During this stage it cannot eat, but major changes occur.
29. What is incomplete metamorphosis? This cycle has three stages: egg, nymph, adult. An egg hatches into a stage called nymph. As the nymph grows it may shed it's outgrown exoskeleton several times before becoming an adult.
30. What is a nymph? A stage in which the insect looks like the adult insect without wings. It continues to molt as it gets larger.
31. What is a tadpole? The larva of a frog.
32. How do amphibians and reptiles care for their young? They don't care for their young. Eggs are laid, hatch and are on their own.
33. How do birds and mammals care for their young? Birds make nests, bring food to babies. They sit on the eggs until they hatch. They care for their young until they can care for themselves. Mammals feed babies milk. They care for their young until they are independent.
34. What is behavior? It is all of the actions an animal performs. Some behaviors are finding food, avoiding predators, finding a mate.
35. All animal behaviors are responses to what? Stimuli. External stimuli are seeing food, smelling food, sensing predators nearby. Internal stimuli is hunger.
36. Why are behaviors considered adaptations? They require the use of multiple systems, nervous, muscle, skeletal, digestive, etc. and evolved over long periods of time.
37. What are animal responses to internal stimuli? and to external stimuli? Internal: adrenal glands secrete adrenaline External: jumps when frightened Both: Heart rate increases while animal runs from predator
38. What is the point of behavior? It helps an animal in some form or fashion.
39. What is an instinct? This is a response to a stimulus that is inborn and that an animal performs correctly the first time. Example: spider spins web in first try, birds build nests without being taught, mother mammals feed young.
40. What is a learned behavior? This is a process that leads to changes in behavior based on practice or experience. Slightly bigger brains are needed to learn. An animal has the instinct to pounce on an object but has to learn how to hunt.
41. What are four learned behaviors? Imprinting, conditioning, trial and error, insight
42. What is imprinting? When certain newly hatched birds and newborn mammals recognize and follow the first moving object they see, like baby ducks.
43. What are advantages of imprinting? Keeps parent and baby close, they 'know' that 'they' look like, they can find mates of same species. Once imprinting takes place, it cannot be changed.
44. What is conditioning? Learning that a particular stimulus or response leads to a good or a bad outcome. Example: leash means going for walk, etc.
45. Who did experiments on conditioning? Ivan Pavlov, Russian scientist, performed experiments in early 1900s with his dog. He rang a bell when feeding his dog. Eventually the dog would salivate when just hearing the bell.
46. What is trial and error? A behavior where an animal learns to do a behavior through repeated practice.
47. What is insight learning? When you solve a problem or learn how to do something new by applying what you already know, without a period of trial and error. Might be called thinking or problem solving. Mostly seen in humans and other primates.
48. What are three ways animals communicate? Sounds, scents and body movement.
49. What are pheromones? This is a chemical released by one animal that affects the behavior of another animal of the same species.
50. What is competitive behavior? This is where animals compete over limited resources, such as food, water, shelter and mates. Sometimes aggression can be shown when competing.
51. What is aggression? This is a threatening behavior that one animal uses to gain control over another.
52. What is territory? This is an area that is occupied and defended by an animal or group of animals. Territory can provide safety and security, animals use scratches, droppings pheromones to mark their territory.
53. What is courtship behavior? This is activities that prepare males and females of the same species for mating.
54. What is cooperative behavior? This is where animals work together to survive. There is safety in groups. Fish have schools, etc.
55. What is a society? A group of closely related animals of the same species that work together in a highly organized way. Queen, drones, etc.
56. What is cyclic behavior? Behaviors that repeats, it changes over the course of a day or a season.
57. What are circadian rhythms? Behavior cycles that occur over a period of approximately one day.
58. What is hibernation? This is a state of greatly reduced body activity that occurs during the winter when food is scarce. It is a behavior related to seasons.
59. What is migration? This is the regular, seasonal journey of an animal from one place to another and back again.
Created by: Bwolson