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Stroke Localization

Stroke Localization of Function

Aphasia is a disorder that results from damage to ? * areas on the left side (hemisphere) of the brain (lesion also impairs reading/writing/understanding and expressing language)
What causes aphasia? * Aphasia is caused by damage to one or more of the language areas of the brain
What types of aphasia are there? * There are two broad categories of aphasia: fluent and non-fluent.
Fluent Aphasia = ? * Damage to the temporal lobe of the brain may result in a fluent aphasia called Wernicke's aphasia .... * Speak "Word Salad" and have no clue they are doing it
Non-fluent aphasia = ? * Broca's aphasia..... * People with Broca's aphasia have damage to the frontal lobe of the brain.... * Understand speech, just have difficult time speaking back
What else might you see in someone with Brocas ? * right-sided weakness or paralysis of the arm and leg because the frontal lobe is also important for motor movements
Amnesia and the hippocampus = ? * loss of past memories
A stroke in a deep area of the brain (for example, a stroke in the thalamus, the basal ganglia or pons) is called ? * lacunar stroke
Lacunar Strokes from normal strokes ? * These deeper structures receive their blood flow through a unique set of arteries. Because of the characteristics of these arteries, lacunar strokes happen a little bit differently from other strokes
How a Lacunar Stroke Occurs ? * occurs when one of the arteries that provide blood to the brain's deep structures is blocked...* are smaller arteries in the brain since it goes to deeper structures, so HTN usu causes this
Symptoms of a Lacunar Stroke = ? * All depend on the area it takes place in : Weakness or paralysis of the face, arm, leg, foot or toes -- Sudden numbness -- Difficulty walking -- Difficulty speaking -- Clumsiness of a hand or arm -- Weakness or paralysis of eye muscles
In a person with prolonged, untreated high blood pressure, multiple lacunar strokes can occur, and cause ? * All of the past CxSx, and emotional behavior and dementia.
Lacunar Stroke Prognosis ? * Have a way better prognosis and recovery over that of a regular large artery stroke
Visual field representation = ? * Each hemifield is projected onto the nasal hemiretina of the ipsilateral1 eye and the temporal hemiretina of the contralateral eye
Visual Pathway = ? * The axons of ganglion cells exit the eyes via the optic nerve, partially cross at the optic chiasm, and form two optic tracts, so that the right and left hemifields reach the left and right hemispheres
Central Projections of the retina (4 of them)? * 1) lateral geniculate nucleus = relays visual info to the primary visual cortex; 2) superior colliculus = control orienting eye mvts; 3) hypothalamus = which regs the circadian rhythms; and 4) pretectum = pupillar light reflex
The pretectum goes to what ganglion ? * Edinger-Westphal nuclei
Is the major target of the retinal ganglion cells ? * Lateral geniculate nucleus in the thalamus
LGN layers = ? * 6 layers receive inputs from either the ipsilateral or contralateral eye... * left eye project to layers 1, 4 & 6 of the right LGN, and the right eye ganglion cells project to its layer 2, 3 & 5.
A lesion of the right optic nerve causes = ? * total loss of vision in the right eye; it also produces a right afferent pupil deficit.
A lesion of the optic chiasm = ? * loss of vision in the temporal half of both visual fields: bitemporal hemianopsia..... * This kind of damage is most commonly caused by a tumor of the pituitary gland that compresses the chiasm
A lesion of the right optic tract = ? * complete loss of vision in the left hemifield: contralateral “homonymous” hemianopsia.
A lesion of the right optic radiation just after the LGN = ? * loss of vision in the left hemifield: contralateral “homonymous” hemianopsia
A lesion of the right optic radiation specific to Meyer’s loop = ? * loss of vision in the upper quadrant of the left hemifield
A lesion of the parietal portion of the right optic radiation = ? * loss of vision in the lower quadrant of the left hemifield
A lesion of the right visual cortex = ? * complete loss of vision in the left hemifield but they usually spare foveal vision, probably because the cortical foveal representation is so extensive that a single lesion is unlikely to destroy it all
Created by: thamrick800