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absence seizure a type of generalized seizure characterized by a sudden, momentary break in consciousness; formerly often called petit mal seizure
adjunct a drug used with another drug
Alzheimer disease a degenerative disorder of the brain that leads to progressive dementia and changes in personality and behavior
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) a degenerative disease of the motor nerves; also called Lou Gehrig's disease
anticonvulsant a drug to control seizures
ataxia irregular muscle movements
atonic seizure a type of generalized seizure characterized by sudden loss of both muscle tone and consciousness
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a neurologic disorder characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility
area under the curve (AUC) a measure of drug concentration in the blood
basal nuclei symmetric, subcortical masses of gray matter embedded in the lower portions of the cerebral hemisphere; part of the extrapyramidal system; also called basal ganglia
catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) an enzyme that metabolizes levodopa in the body; inhibited by certain anti-Parkinson agents
convulsion involuntary contraction or series of contractions of the voluntary muscles
diplopia the perception of two images of a single object
dysarthria imperfect articulation of speech
dyskinesia impairment of the power of voluntary movement
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
epilepsy a neurologic disorder involving sudden and recurring seizures
generalized seizure a seizure that involves both hemispheres of the brain simultaneously and has no local origin; can be a tonicclonic (grand mal), absence (petit mal), myoclonic, or atonic seizure
grand mal seizure a type of generalized seizure characterized by body rigidity followed by muscle jerks
isomer one of two or more compounds that contain the same number and type of atoms but have different molecular structures
Lou Gehrig disease see amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
motor end plate the neuromuscular junction, where the nervous system and muscular system meet to produce or stop movement
multiple sclerosis (MS) an autoimmune disease in which the myelin sheaths around nerves degenerate
muscle fasciculation a small, local, involuntary muscular contraction visible under the skin
myasthenia gravis an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction in which the ACh receptors are destroyed at the motor end plate, preventing muscles from responding to nerve signals to move them
myoclonic seizure a type of generalized seizure characterized by sudden muscle contractions with no loss of consciousness
on-off phenomenon a wide fluctuation between abnormally increased and abnormally diminished motor function, present in many Parkinson patients after about 5 years of levodopa therapy
Parkinson disease a neurologic disorder characterized by akinesia, resting tremor, and muscular rigidity
partial seizure an abnormal electrical discharge centered in a specific area of the brain; usually caused by a trauma
petit mal seizure a type of generalized seizure characterized by a sudden, momentary break in consciousness
ptosis paralytic drooping of the upper eyelid
restless leg syndrome an overpowering urge to move the legs, especially at rest
seizure abnormal electrical discharges in the cerebral cortex caused by sudden, excessive firing of neurons; result in a change in behavior of which the patient is not aware
status epilepticus a serious disorder involving tonic-clonic convulsions that last at least 30 minutes
substance P a potent neurotransmitter mediating sensations of pain, touch, and temperature
substantia nigra a layer of gray substance separating parts of the brain
tonic-clonic seizure a type of generalized seizure characterized by body rigidity followed by muscle jerks; formerly called a grand mal seizure
Created by: softcrylic