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Chapter 15

The Endocrine System

adams apple protrusion in neck caused by fold of thyroid cartilage
adenohypophysis anterior lobeof pituitary gland
adrenal cortex outer portion of aderenal gland; controls metabolism, inflammation, Na and P rentention and effects of stress
adrenal gland situatied on top of kidney
adrenlaine secreted by adrenal medull
adrenal edulla inne portion of adrenal glands; release large quantities of hormones during stress
adrenocorticotropic hormone hormone secreted by anterior pituitary; control adrenal cortex
aldosterone hormone secreted by adrenal cortex; mineralocorticoid
alpha cells specialized cells tht produce glucagon in pancreas
androgen any male hormone
antidiuretic hormone posterior pituitary hormone tht increases water reabsorpition
bet cells specialized cells that produce insulin in pancreas
calcitonin hormone secreted by thyroid gland otherendocrine glands helps control blood calcium levels
catecholamines hormones released in response to stress
corticosteroids steroid produced by adrenal cortex
cortisol hydrocortisone
ductless gland endocrine gland
electroyte substance that conducts electricity and is decomposed by it
endocrine gland gland that secretes substances into bloodstream insteead of into ducts
exocrine gland gland that releases substance through ducts to specific location
follicle stimulating hormone hormone released by anterior pitutiary to aid in production of ova and pserm
gland organized mass of tissue secreting and excreting substances
glucagon released by pancreas to increase blood sugar
glucocorticoids released by adrenal cortex
glycogen converted glucose stored in liver for future use
gorwth hormone released by anterior pituitary for stimulating growth
hormone substance secreted by glands and carried in bloodstream to various parts of body
hypophysis pituitary gland
hypothalamus gland in nervous system releases hormones to aid in regulating pituitary hormones
inhibiting factor substance in hormone that prevents the secretion of other hormones
insulin substance released by pancreas to lower blood sugar
islets of langerhans specialized cells in pancreas that release insulin and glucagon
isthmus narrow band of tissue connencting the tow lobes of thyroid gland
luteinizig hormone hormone released to aid in maturation of ova and ovulation in femail, secretion of testerone in males
melanocyte stimulating hormone released by pituiatry gland; aids in development of melanin pigment in skin
melatonin released by pineal gland affects sexual function and sleep pattersn
metabolism chemical changes in cells that provide energy for vital processes and activities and thru which new material is assimilated
mineralocorticoid steroid secreted by adrenal cortex
neurohypophysis posterior lobe of pituitary gland
norepinephrine secreted by adrenal medulla
oxytocin released by posterior pitutiary gland to aid in uterine contractions and lactation
ovary reproductive gland in femals that secrete hormones in endocrine system
pancreas gland of both endocrine anddigestive system
parathormone parathyroid hormone
parathyroid gland 1 of 4 located adjavcent to thyroid gland on its dorsal surface that help maintain levels of blood ca
parathyroid hormone hormone released by parathyroid glands to help raise blood Ca leels
pineal gland located above pituitary gland secretes melatonin
pituitary gland majour endocrin gland; secretes hormones esesstial to metabolic functions
receptor targe cell with properties compatible with particular substance
releasing factor substance in hormone that allows secretion of other hormon
somatotrophic homone secrete by anterior pituitary gland important in growth and development
suprarenal gland adrenal gland
sympathomimetic mimicking functions of sympathetic nervous system
target cell cell with receptor that are compatible with specific hormones
tstis male organs that secrete hormones in endocrine
thymus gland part of immune systema s well as endocrine aids in maturation of T and B cells
thyroid gland two lbes located on either side of trachea help control blood Ca levvels and metabolic functions
thyroid stimulating hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland; stimulates release of thyroid hormones
thyroxine compound found in or maunfactured for thyroid gland helps regulate metabolism
triiodothyronine thyroid hormone that stimulates growth
vasopressin hormone secreted by piuitary gland; raises blood pressure
adeno GLAND
gluco glucose
glyco glycogen
gonado sex glands
pancreato pancreas
parathyroid parathyroid
thryo thryoido thyroid gland
acth adrenocorticotropic hormone
adh antidiuretic hormone
crh corticotropin realsing hormone
dm diabetes melllitus
ot oxytoxin
fsh follicle stimulating hormone
gh growth hormone
gtt glucose tolerance tset
hcg human chorionic gonadotropin
iddm insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
lh luteinizing hormone
msh melanocyte stimulating hormone
niddm noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus
pg prostaglandins
prl prolactin
pth parathyroid hormone
sth somatotrpin hormone
tsh thyroid stimulting hormone
blood sugar test for glucose in blood
fasting blood sugar test for glucose in blood following fast of 12 hours
glucose tollerance test blood test for body's ability to metabolize carbs taken after 10-12 hr fast then repeated every hour for 4-6 hours after ingetsion of sugar solution
glucosulated hemoglbin a1c blood tst for an average of glucose levels over the previous 2-3 months
postprandial blood sugar test for glucos in blod two hours after meal
radioactive immunoassay test for measuring hormone levels in plasma; taken after radioactive solution is ingested
radioactive iodine uptake test for how quickly thyroid gland pulls in ingested iodine
thyroid function test test for levels of tsh t3 t4 in blood plasma to determine thyroid function
thyroid scan imaging test for thyroid abnormalities
urine sugar test for diabetes determined by presence of sugar in urine
acidosis abnormal accumulation of ketones in body
acromegaly abnormally enlarged features resulting from pituitary tumor and hypersecretion of growth hormone
addison's disease underactivity of adrena glands
cushings syndrome group of symptoms caused by overactivity of adrenal glands
diabetes insipidus condition caused by hypo secretion of atidiuretic hormone
diabetes nephropathy kidney disease due to diabetes
diabetic neuropathy loss of snesation in extremities due to diabetes
diabetic retinopathy gradual loss of vision due to diabetes
dwarfism abnormally stunted growth caused by hyposecretion of growth hormone congenital lack of thyroid gland or genetic defect
exophthalmos abnormal protrusion of eyes typical of graves disease
gigantism abnormall fasat and lareg growth casued by hypersecretion of growth hormone
glucosuria glucose in urine
glycosuria glucose in urine
graves disease overactivity of thyroid gland
goiter abnormally enlargement of thyroid gland
hirsutism abnormal hari growth due to an excess of androgens
hyperadrenalism overactivity of adrenal glands
hyperparathroidism overactivity of parathyroid glands
hypersecretion abnormally high secretion
hyperthyroidism overactivity of thyroid gland
hypo adrenalism underactivity of adrenal glands
hypoglycemia abnormally low level of glucose in blood
hypoparathyroidism underactivity of parathyroid gland
hyposecretion abnormally low secretions
hypothyroidism underactivity of thyroid gland
ketoacidosis condition of high acid levels caused by abnormal accumulation of ketones in body
ketosis condition caused by abnormal elease of ketones
myxedema advanced adult hypothyroidism
pancreatitis inflammation of pancreas
poludipsia excessive thirst
polyuria exxcessive excretion of urin
syndrome in inapprpriate adh excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone
tetany neurological sndrome usually due to decrease serum levels of Ca in blood
thyrotoxicosis state of dangerousl high levels of thyroid hormones
type I diabetes endocrine disorder with abnormally low or completely absent levels of inslin; insulin dpendent diabetes mellitus
type II diabetes diseasecaused by failure of body to recognize insulin that is present or by and banormally low level of insulin; noninsulin dependent diabtetes mellitus; adult onset
virilism condition with excessive androgen productino often resulting ina ppearance of mature male characterisitics in young
adenectomy removal of gland
adrenalectomy removal of adrenal gland
hypophysectomy removal of piuitary gland
[ancreatectomy removal of pancreas
parathyroidectomy removal of one or more of parathyroid glands
thymectomy removal of thymus gland
thyroidectomy removal of thyroid gland
antihyperglycemic agent that lowers blood glucose
antihypogycemic agent that raises blood glucose
hormone replacement therapy ingestion of hormones to replace missing one
human growth hormones naturally occurring subsatance in body that prmotes growth; synthesie substace that seves the same function
hypoglycemic agent that lowers blood glucose
radioactive iodine therapy use of radioactive iodine to eliminate thyroid tumors
steroid hormoe or chemical substance released b several endocrine glands or manufactured in various medications
Created by: cs3516