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Ch. 6 Bones and Skel

Physiology

QuestionAnswer
5 Functions of the Skeleton Support. Protection. Leverage for movement. Mineral, lipid, and growth factor storage. Blood Cell Production
2 Classifications by Location Axial Skeleton & Appendicular Skeleton
Components: Skull, Vertebral Column, Rib cage. Primary Functions: Protection, and Support Axial Skeleton
Components: Shoulder bones, & upper limps; Hip bones, & lower limbs. Functions: Leverage for Locomotion, Leverage for manipulation for the environment Appendicular Skeleton
4 Classifications by shape Long, Short, Flat, & Irregular Bones
2 Chemical Composition of Bone Osteoid & Hydroxyapatites
One Third of Extracellular Matrix Osteoid
Two thirds of Extracellular Matrix Hydroxyapatites
Composed of: Ground Substance (proteoglycans & glycoproteins) & Collagen Fibers Osteoid
Mineral Salts-Mostly calcium phosphate Hydroxyapatites
Made by osteoblasts Osteoid
Tiny crystals arranged tightly around the collagen fibers of the extracellular matrix. Hydroxyapatites
Contributes to bone flexability and tensile strength that allow bones to withstand stretching and twisting. Osteoid
Contributes to bone hardness and ability to resist compression. Hydroxyapatites
In embryos, leads to develpment of the body skeleton Osteogenesis or Ossification
Until adulthood, leads to growth of the skeleton Osteogenesis or Ossification
In adulthood, leads to some increase in thickness of bones. Primarily leads to remodeling and repair of bones. Osteogenesis or Ossification
Process of bone tissue formation Osteogenesis or Ossification
Bones can develop from 2 different tissues during embryonic development Fibrous Connective Tissue (Intramembranous Ossification) & Hyaline Cartilage(Endochondral Ossification)
Leads to the formation of most bones in the skull and miscellaneos other bones (clavicle, sesamoid bones) Intramembranous Ossification (Fibrous Connective Tissue)
Bones of the skelton from the base of the skull down (with a few exceptions) Endochondral Ossification (Hyaline Cartilage)
Bone deposition and resorption for the purpose of shaping, strengthening or repairing bone Bone Growth & Remodeling
Based off the action of osteoblasts & osteoclasts Bone Growth & Remodeling
Growth in thickness/diameter Bone Growth & Remodeling
Growth in length Bone Growth & Remodeling
An extension of endochondral ossification (cartilage forms and is replaced by bone) Growth in Length
Osteoblasts of periosteum lay down new bone. Osteoclasts of endosteum at spongy/compact bone interface remove internal bone (helps keep bones light) Growth in thinkness/diameter
Every week we recycle 5-7% of our bone mass Rate of bone remodeling in adults
Spongy bone is replaced every 3-4 years Rate of bone remodeling in adults
Compact bone is replaced every 10 years Rate of bone remodeling in adults
Rate is variable based on location Rate of bone remodeling in adults
At any given location, rate of bone destruction and deposition is approximately equal in healthy adults Rate of bone remodeling in adults
Control of Remodeling Hormones
Promotes calcium and phosphate ion absorption by digestive tract Calcitriol (kidneys)
Stimulates osteoblast activity and the synthesis of bone matrix (pituitary gland) Growth Hormone (pituitary gland)
Stimulates osteoblast activity and the synthesis of bone matrix (thyroid gland) Thyroxine (thyroid gland)
Stimulates osteoblast activity and the synthesis of bone matrix (ovaries/testes) Sex Hormones (ovaries/testes)
Stimulates osteoclasts activity; elevates calcium ion concentration in body fluids Parathyroid Hormone (parathyroid glands)
inhibits osteoclast activity, promotes calcium loss at kidneys, and reduces calcium ion concentration in body fluid Calcitonin (thyroid gland)
Bones are hollow in the middle Mechanical Stress
Long bones are thickest midway along the shaft Mechanical Stress
Curved bones are thickest where they are most likely to buckle Mechanical Stress
Trabeculea of spongy bones from trusses (struts) along lines of compression Mechanical Stress
Large bone projections occur where heavy, active muscles attach Mechanical Stress
Bones of infants and bedridden people are featureless Mechanical Stress
relatively long & slendor (phalanges, ulna, radius) Long Bones
roughly cubed shaped (carpals, tarsals, sesamoid bones) Short Bones
thin, flattened, slightly curved (sternum, scapula, ribs, many skull bones, sutural bones) Flat Bones
complicated shapes (vertebrae, ossa coxae, many facial bones) Irregular Bones
2 types of bone density Compact & Spongy Bone
External part of bone Compact Bone
Looks smooth and solid to naked eye Compact Bone
Internal part of bone Spongy Bone
Honeycomb of osseous tissue called trabeculae Spongy Bone
Filled with bone marrow Spongy Bone
2 structures of typical long bone Diaphysis & Epiphyses
Shaft of the bone Diaphysis
Compact bone externally Diaphysis
Central medullary cavity that contains bone marrow Diaphysis
Larger Diameter than Diaphysis Epiphyses
Compact bone externally Epiphyses
Spongy bone internally Epiphyses
Layer of spongy bone (diploe) sandwiched between compact bone Structure of a typical short, irregular or flat bone
Spongy bone contains bone marrow, although no marrow cavity is present Structure of a typical short, irregular or flat bone
2 types of bone marrow Hematopoietic Tissue (red marrow)& Yellow Marrow
Found in all medullary cavities and spongy bone in infants. Hematopoietic Tissue (red marrow)
Usually restricted to proximal epiphysis of the humerus and femur and to spongy bone of flat and irregular bones (hips, sternum) in adults. Hematopoietic Tissue (red marrow)
Responsible for blood cell formation. Hematopoietic Tissue (red marrow)
Can reform in long bones if anemia occurs Hematopoietic Tissue (red marrow)
Adipose tissue used to store lipids Yellow Marrow
Replaces most red marrow in bone marrow cavities and spongy bones of adults Yellow Marrow
2 types of membranes Periosteum & Endosteum
Covers entire outer surface of bone except joint surfaces Periosteum
Outer layer is dense irregular connective tissue Periosteum
Inner layer composed primarily of oseoprogenitor cells along with osteoblast and osteoclasts Periosteum
Collagen fibers incorporated into the bone called perforatiing fibers Periosteum
Continuous with joint capsules, tendons, and ligaments Periosteum
Covers trabeculae of spongy bone and lines canals that pass through compact bone Endosteum
Composed of an osteogenic layer of cells containing osteoblasts and osteoclasts Endosteum
Lacks the dense irregular connective tissue present in the periosteum Endosteum
Populate Bone tissue Bone Cells
4 types of bone cells Osteoprogenitor Cells, Osteoblasts, Osteocytes, & Osteoclasts
Stem Cells Osteoprogenitor Cells
Produce daughter cells known as osteoblasts Osteoprogenitor Cells
Bone cells that produce new extracellular matrix (osteoid) Osteoblasts
Encourage accumulation of calcium salts in the extracellular matrix Osteoblasts
Mature osteoblasts that have been completely surrounded by bone matrix Osteocytes
Maintain the protein and mineral content of the surrounding extracellular matrix Osteocytes
Participate in bone repair Osteocytes
Large, Multi-nucleated cells Osteoclasts
Produce by myeloid stem cells (myeloid known primarily for producing blood cells) Osteoclasts
Secrete acids and proteolytic enzymes that digest bone Osteoclasts
Strucural unit of compact bone Osteon (Harversian System)
Concentric rings of bone Lamella
Collagen fibers and salt crystals lie in opposite directions in adjacent lemella Lamella
Contains blood vessels and nerve fibers Central (harversian) Canal & Perforating (volkmann's) Canal
Lie at right angles to length of bone Perforating (volkmann's) Canal
Connection to the exterior Perforating (volkmann's) Canal
Small cavities between lamella Lucunae
Contain Osteocytes Lucunae
Small cavaties extending into the lamella Canaliculi
Allow osteocytes to communicate via gap junctions Canaliculi
Appears to be poorly organized Microscopic structure of spongy bone
Trabeculae actually arranged along lines of stress Microscopic structure of spongy bone
Contains irregularly arranged lamella and osteocytes interconnected by canaliculi Microscopic structure of spongy bone
Very light-weight but resistant to stress in multiple planes Microscopic structure of spongy bone
Created by: ky13 on 2008-09-17



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