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GEO 103 Exam 2

Exam 2

TermDefinition
Classifying Mass Movement Falls + Slides + Flows
Triggering Mechanisms (Mass Movement) Earthquakes, Volcanoes, Undercutting of toe, Human caused vibrations, saturation via water
Mass Movement Down slope movement of rock and soil under the force of gravity.
Stream/River Base Level Lowest point a stream can erode in its bed.
Drainage Basin Where streams converge.
Divides The separation of drainage basins by ridges and such.
Drainage Patterns Dendritic: Develops in valleys. Branching. Parallel: forms on steep slopes. swift and straight. Trellis: tributaries entering river at a ninety degree angle. Radial: flowing into a central location. Volcanoes esp.
Base flow lowest discharge of any given river.
Stream Discharge Q=VA ---> width x distance x velocity
Stream Erosion/Transport/Deposition Erosion: hydraulic action, abrasion, corrosion Transport: Bed load, suspended load, solution load Deposition: Alluvial fans, deltas, natural levees
Coastal processes Waves, ocean currents, storms, tides
Littoral current Develops from waves hitting the shore at an angle. Travels parallel to the shoreline.
Coastal landforms Erosional: Stacks/arches, wave cut terraces, headlands, Depositional: Baymouth bars, beaches, spits.
Waves -- sets, rogue, tsunami Rogue: spontaneous waves that occur far out in the sea Wave sets: usually result from plate movement. Can also occur due to underwater mass wasting.
Earth's Fresh water breakdown 97.22 = ocean water. 2.78 = fresh water, of that 2.78, 77% is frozen, 22% underground, 1% in lakes.
Alpine Glacier (Deposition) Medial moraine: deposited debris/sediment formed at the point when two glaciers coalesce. Lateral moraine: parallel debris deposition Terminal moraine: deposited at the snout of a glacier
Alpine Glacier (Erosion) Striations (scratches on underlying bedrock tell the direction of glacier) Cirque: formed at the head of a glacier. Tarn: mountain lake formed in a cirque created by a glacier Horn Bergschrund: deep crevasse at the head of a glacier.
Continental Glaciers (deposition) Eskers: old stream beds Kettle lakes: formed from separated ice blocks Kames: essentially sand domes erratics: large displaced rocks.
Continental glaciers (erosional) Drumlin: deposited till in an upside-down spoon shape. The downhill slope corresponds with the direction of the glacier Roche Moutonnee: bedrock, movement of glacier corresponds to direction away from plucking.
Extent of Wisconsin Glaciation Covered New York, through southern tip of Illinois to Seattle.
Laurentide and Cordilleran Right side of rockies = Laurentide, Cordilleran = left side.
Post-glacial rebound Rise of landmass after depression from ice sheet/glaciers. Occurring in Scandinavia and Hudson Bay
Pluvial Lakes Once existed, now nonexistent lakes. Existed during most recent glaciation. (e.g. Area 51)
Ice Age; Cause One theory says the Earth goes through a cooling period every 100,000 because of change in its relative position to the Sun.
Defining a Desert An area that receives less than 10 in. of rainfall per year.
The Four Deserts Mojave, Great Basin, Sonoran, Chihuahuan
Dist. of Deserts Results from 3 predominant factorsl; - Distance from moisture - located on the "lee side" of a large mountain range - located in sub tropical high pressure zone
Aeolian (erosion) Deflation - blowing away of loose particles. Creates desert pavement + blowout depression Abrasion - produces pitted, grooved landforms. Also, yardangs. Varnish - rapid evaporation after precip.
Aeolian (transport) Dust storm: especially find particles carried high in the atmosphere. Sand storm: carried few metres off ground. Moves by saltation (aerodynamic lift)
Aeolian (deposition) - Ripples, formed at right angles. Various dune shapes: - barchan (parabolic) forms horns. - longitudinal resulting from strong one-directional winds. - star dunes (variable winds)
Loess Essentially fine sediment deposited after glaciation. Was picked up and deposited in areas like the Great Plains. REEEAL good for agriculture.
Sahel Location in Northern Africa where there exists a transition zone between rain forest and desert.
Defining ecosystems an area containing biotic + abiotic factors
Two Abiotic Factors Affecting Dist. of Biomes Temperature + Precipitation
Arizona's Life Zones (C. Hart Merriam) Lower Sonoran ---> Upper Sonoran (Pinyon-Juniper woodland, grassland) ----> Transition (ponderosa pine) --- > Canadian (mixed conifer) ---- > Hudsonian (Spruce fir + Subalpine conifer forest) --- > Arctic Alpine
Neap & Spring Tides Spring; when moon + sun are aligned. Causes higher tide Neap: moon and Sun are at right angle from each other, results in lower tides.
Created by: jeremycliffordaz