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Weathering and Soil

Weathering, Erosion, and Soil

What are the agents of mechanical weathering? abrasion, actions of animals, growth of plants, heating and cooling, freezing and thawing
What are the types of chemical weathering? water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, organism's actions, acid rain
What horizon is crumbly, dark, has lots of humus, has decomposers? Horizon A
What Horizon is a reddish brown color, has mostly clay, and very little humus? Horizon B
What horizon is partially weathered rock? Horizon C
What horizon is solid rock? Bedrock
What is weathering? The breaking up of rocks chemically or physically.
What is erosion? The movement of the broken up rocks to a new location by wind, water, or ice.
What is soil? Soil is broken down rock that is loose material that lays on Earth's surface.
What is found on top of all of the soil horizons? Litter
What is the most important type of chemical weathering? Water
What is chemical weathering? Chemical weathering is when the chemical composition changes in a rock due to chemical reactions
What is mechanical/physical weathering? Breaks up the rock physically not changing the composition. (what the rock is made of or how it looks.
What is humus? Decayed plant or animal remains that make soil more fertile
What is soil made up of? water, air, rocks, minerals, humus
Why did the dust bowl happen? poor farming practices, too many herds, and drought
Is soil important to everything on Earth? Yes
What is soil conservation? the management of soil to prevent it's destruction
What is conservation plowing and what does it do? When dead weeds and stalks are left in place from last years harvest to hold soil in place and help return nutrients and it keeps soil from washing or blowing away
What is contour plowing and what does it do? the practice of plowing fields on a slope and it helps slow runoff and keeps the soil from washing away
What does permeable mean? that a substance has holes in it so things can pass through it
Subsoil is another name for what horizon? Horizon B
Topsoil is another name for what horizon? Horizon A
What is a soil horizon? a layer of soil that's color or texture is different from surrounding layers.
What are decomposers? the organisms that break up the remains of dead organisms into smaller pieces and digest them with chemicals
Who taught new methods of soil conservation to farmers in the South? George Washington Carver
What is the dust bowl? Places like western Oklahoma, eastern new mexico, northern Texas, eastern Colorado, western kansas
(True or False) Soil is a valuable resource because life depends on it but it forms very slowly True
(True False) Fungi, bacteria, and Earthworms are a few examples of decomposers. True
What does loam mean? Soil that has crumbly texture, about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt, and is the best for growing most types of plants
What is sod? Thick mass of grass and roots that makes lawns look nice. It is grown on a farm and helps keep soil in place. After a little bit, the sod grows into the soil but it has to be watered a lot.
Created by: 16mcosta