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exocrine glands glands that have ducts through which they release hormones
endocrine glands ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
Hormones are chemical messengers that change the activity of target cells. Often they increase or decrease a secretion made by the cell.
Peptin (protein hormones) – most hormones Receptors are in the cell membrane
Steroids sex hormones and adrenal hormones, Based on cholesterol, Receptors either enter the nucleus bound to hormone or are already within the nucleus, Change expression of genes by the target cell
Hormones Function originate at a specific site target specific cells via receptors can affect cells far from the gland effects of hormones are relatively slow compared to the nervous system
Receptors Allow hormones to enter specific target cells Change shape when the hormone binds When the hormone binds to a receptor, the receptor activates G proteins
g protiens activate another protein in the cell membrane called an effector molecule
Effector molecule a reaction that changes ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP)
cyclic AMP acts as a catalyst for a reaction that begins a series of enzymatic reactions that communicates a message to the cell. This series of reactions is called signal transduction.
signal transduction One signal transduction series that is well understood removes a glucose from glycogen in the liver in the last reaction of the series
enzymes provide a favorable site for an enzymatic reaction but the enzyme itself is not changed
enzymes nature the original signal from a hormone molecule is amplified many times
hypothalamus new “master” gland because it secretes releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate release of hormones from the pituitary GHRH
pituitary forms from a fusion of endocrine (anterior pituitary) and neural (posterior pituitary) tissue during embryonic development
Anterior pituitary MSH seems to be involved in control of appetite in people
Growth hormone targets muscle cells and the epiphyseal plate of growing bones and causes them to increase in size and divide
Growth hormone Work directly by releasing fat reserves and Stimulating release of glycogen from liver. Growth hormone has a diabetogenic effect
Growth hormone Work indirectly through IGF’s, insulin-like growth factors, by stimulating uptake of amino acids for making proteins and sulfur for making cartilage. Building processes like these are anabolic processes
Hypersecretion of GH gigantism
gigantism – cardiovascular problems are common in gigantism or acromegaly - growth of hands, feet, face, organs after attaining adult height
Hyposecretion of gh Achondroplasia and Laron syndrome
Achondroplasia usually the parents are normal height. The gene for achondroplasia is a dominant gene from new mutation during embryonic development.
Achondroplasia con't Since it is dominant, the mutation in either the maternal or paternal copy produces the trait. Two copies are usually lethal.
Laron syndrome recessive autosomal defect in GH receptor
Human GH can be produced by recombinant gene technology There is little evidence that giving normal children extra GH affects their adult height
Human GH con't Lower levels of GH as people age mean higher percent of body is fat. Effects of giving GH to normal people may include Cancer, diabetes, joint pain and edema
Thyroid stimulating hormone Negative feedback with levels of thyroid hormones
Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH – stimulate adrenals to release corticosteroids, especially glucocorticoids released during stress
Gonadotropins FSH stimulates maturation of gametes in females and males. LH stimulates ovulation in females.
Prolactin stimulates production of milk Nursing stimulates further production. Prolactin is found in males.
Posterior pituitary Is a storage site for two hormones that are made by nuclei in the hypothalamus
Oxytocin uterine contractions and milk let-down reaction In men and women is associated with sexual pleasure and pleasurable feelings from touching. It is sometimes called the cuddle hormone.
ADH Increases the return of water to the bloodstream at the kidney tubules Alcohol consumption inhibits ADH
Diabetes insipidus can be caused by injury to the hypothalamus This condition is not serious as long as the person is conscious and can drink fluids. There is no change in blood glucose levels associated with diabetes insipidus
Thyroid hormone – also called T4. Affects essentially all cells except brain, gonads, thyroid itself. Affects basal metabolic rate via glucose metabolism. Is necessary for normal development of skeletal and nervous systems
Hypothyroidism – overweight, sluggish, mental lethargy, feeling cold, constipation, dull skin, coarse hair
Hyperthyroidism – underweight, nervous, hyperactive, feeling hot, diarrhea, thin skin, fine hair
Hypothyroidism - untreated in babies causes stunting of growth and mental retardation – called Cretinism
Goiter – thyroid is unable to make thyroid hormone due to a lack of iodine in the diet Low levels of TH result in high levels of TSH and enlarged thyroid. Goiter belt was once in the Midwest where iodine-rich seafood not available
Grave’s disease – autoimmune disease where an antibody mimics TSH and results in high levels of TH Bulging eyes are a characteristic symptom also sweating and nervousness
Calcitonin is released by the thyroid. Calcitonin increases uptake of calcium from the bloodstream. This hormone is mainly important during childhood when bones are growing.
Parathyroids – release PTH which is the antagonist of calcitonin. Cancer of the parathyroids can result in spontaneous fractures and loss of height
Mineralocorticoids – aldosterone, regulation of blood pressure by affecting retention of salts and water. Water follows salt.
Glucocorticoids – mostly cortisol –release energy in the form of glucose from liver and breakdown of fats and proteins. Depress immune system and inflammation. Help maintain normal blood sugar levels
Gonadocorticoids – androgens -precursors of testosterone- and estrogens in both sexes Source of testosterone in women Hypersecretion results in virilization – beard in women
Medulla Extension of sympathetic nervous system. Secretes mostly epinephrine –
epinephrine – increased volume of blood to the heart and muscles and relaxed bronchioles
Norepinephrine – has a greater effect on peripheral vasoconstriction and blood pressure
Cushing’s – oversecretion of glucocorticoids syndrome may be caused by pituitary tumor or long-term use of steroids for inflammatory diseases.
Cushing’s – Symptoms include edema giving the person a “moon” face buffalo hump of fat behind the neck, severe infections fatigue, and muscle weakness
Addison’s disease – undersecretion of aldosterone. Dehydration is likely
pancreas targets mainly liver and muscle cells Brain, spleen, pancreas itself can receive glucose without insulin
Glucagon by alpha cells Stimulates release of glucose into bloodstream Promotes breakdown of glycogen to glucose
Insulin by beta cells Stimulates uptake of glucose from bloodstream
Diabetes mellitus Type I – juvenile onset
Polydipsia excess thirst
Polyuria excess release of urine
Polyphagia excess hunger
Viscous blood - excess glycoproteins on red blood cells can cause strokes, gangrene, and ketoacidosis
causes of Diabetes mellitus Type I – Genetic predisposition Production of antibodies to a protein similar to beta cells and destruction of beta cells
Type II diabetes Incidence increases with age In overweight and inactive people Loss of sensitivity of receptors for insulin Pool of receptors is present in the cytoplasm
Diabetes insipidus – caused by damage to hypothalamus or posterior pituitary so too little ADH is secreted Same three p’s, but glucose levels are not involved
Thymus gland – secretes hormones necessary for development of T lymphocytes
Pineal gland Secretes melatonin Indirect connection to the amount of light entering the eyes Involved in diurnal cycles of alertness Reproductive cycles of animals with seasonal reproduction
Atrial natriuretic peptide lowers blood pressure by inhibiting release of renin and aldosterone
Kidney raises blood pressure and works with aldosterone in the RAAS system
Created by: gh337