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Genetics 2

2nd Half Fabish Science

Changes in DNA are called ________. Mutations
Where can mutations occur? In sex cells AND body cells
The only mutations that can be passed on to offspring occur in these cells. Sex cells
Who is affected by mutations that occur in body cells? Only the person with the mutation
A mutation that occurs when a piece of chromosome breaks off Deletion
A mutation that occurs when a piece of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches in the opposite direction (upside-down) Inversion
An inversion reaction changes the direction of the ____ DNA
A mutation that occurs when a piece breaks off a chromosome and attaches to a DIFFERENT chromosome Translocation
When homologous pairs to not separate properly during meiosis, giving one of the daughter cells and extra chromosome and one a missing chromosome, the mutation is called ___ Nondisjunction (not + separating)
This nondisjunction disorder is caused by having 3 copies of the 21 chromosome. Down's Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
This nondisjunction disorder occurs when an individual receives an extra X chromosome (XXY), and usually results in low fertility and developmental delays Klinefelter's
This nondisjunction disorder occurs when an individual has only an X chromosome (X0) causing immature development and sterility. Turner's syndrome
This genotype has been loosely linked to men convicted of violent crime XYY
When two alleles of the same gene do not mask each other it is called ______ dominance incomplete
Incomplete dominance results in a genotype and phenotype that is a ______ of two traits. combination
What kind of traits are carried only on the X chromosome? Sex-linked
Which sex is more likely to get a sex-linked trait? Males
Why are males more likely to get a sex-linked trait? They receive only one X chromosome (from their mother) so the recessive trait cannot be masked.
Traits controlled by more that one gene are called _______ Polygenetic traits
Give an example of a polygenetic trait Skin, hair and eye color are examples
What professionals study and help predict the chances of a specific trait being inherited in families? Genetic counselors
What do genetic counselors do? Help determine probability of passing traits, explain the characteristics of certain traits
What are some tools used by genetic counselors? Pedigrees (Inheritance pattern charts) and karyotypes (chromosomes)
An organized picture of chromosomes removed from a cell and stained is called a ______ karyotype
The procedure in which a large needle is used to remove a small amount of amniotic fluid from the uterus of the mother to obtain fetal cells. Amniocentesis
Procedure which bounces soundwaves off a fetus to produce an image ultrasound
A record that traces how a trait is inherited in a family and helps predict future generations. Pedigree
Plants changes to produce certain chemicals that will kill certain insects that feed on them. Genetically altered plants
Normal genetic material is inserted into a virus, which transfers it to infected body cells, correcting an abnormal condition. Gene transfer
A surgery done on a baby in the mother's uterus using surgical tools and a camera. Fetoscopy
What does genetic engineering (biological and chemical engineering) attempt to do? Change the arrangement of DNA
DNA from one organism inserted into another Recombinant DNA
What is one usage of recombinant DNA? Insulin production - Large amounts of insulin can be produced when the DNA that triggers production is introduced into an organism, like bacteria, that reproduces rapidly.
The study of the interaction between Science and Nature that asks whether science should interfere to cause genetic changes. genetic ethics
What influence does politics have on genetic science? Politics can determine how much money is spent on research, which diseases are studied, and whether to allow genetic alterations.
Created by: judi829