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1stExam Quantitative

Consequent (p.16 Chp 2) The "then" statement within a logical proof
Control (Chp 2) Process by which an individual both prevents personal biases from interfering with the research study and makes sure there are no other explanations for what is seen in the study
Data Analysis* (Chp 2)
Empiricism (Chp 2) Belief that science is only acceptable insofar as the phenomena in question can be "sensed" by average people
Epistemology (Chp 2) Way of knowing
Explanation* (Chp 2) Attempt to satisfy one's curiosity about an observable event
Falsification* (Chp 2)
Generalization* (Chp 2)
Humanism (Chp 2) Belief in universal human qualities such as rationality, common history, experience, and belief
Hypothesis (Chp 2&5) Tentative statement about the relationship between independent and dependent variables
Interpretation* (Chp 2&5)
Label the phenomenon (Chp 2) Giving the phenomenon a name
Negative (Chp 2)
Objective (Chp 2) The desire to create knowledge by examining facts through the scientific method without distorting one's findings through personal feelings, prejudices, and interpretations
Observation (Chp 2) The part of the part of the scientific method where a researcher attempts to test the hypotheses created
Perception* (Chp 2)
Perspective* (Chp 2)
Prediction* (Chp 2)
Presentation* (Chp 2)
Proposition (Chp 2) A statement that either confirms something or denies something
Research (Chp 2) Investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws, and/or practical application of new or revised theories or laws
Science (Chp 2) The study of natural phenomena through quantitative observation, theoretical explanation, and experimentation
Scientific Method (Chp 2) Empirical process by which a researcher attempts to understand a phenomenon by using existing theories to make predictions, empirically observe the phenomenon based on the prediction, & lastly use the observations to refine orig theory
Scientific Problem* (Chp 2)
Subjective (Chp 2) Creation of knowledge that arises out of the researcher's own opinions and perceptions
Theory (Chp 2) Proposed explanation for how a set of natural phenomena will occur, capable of making predictions about the phenomena for the future, and capable of being falsified through empirical observation
Anonymity (Chp 3) When a researcher does not know who participated in a study or which results belong to which participants in a study
Belmont Report (Chp 3) The 1979 report by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research that established 3 basic guidelines for working w/human participants: consent, beneficence, and justice
Beneficence principle (Chp 3)
Confidentiality (Chp 3) The treatment of info an individual has disclosed in a relationship of trust w/the expectation that it will not, without permission, be divulged to others in ways inconsistent w/the understanding of the original disclosure
Data Falsification (Chp 3) Any time you manipulate or alter the data to achieve the results wanted by a researcher
Data Sharing (Chp 3) Ethical principle by which researchers share their data w/other researchers to help further science
Exempt Review (Chp 3) Level of review performed by an IRB where a protocol is determined to be exempt from the guidelines established in 45 CFR 46
Expedited Review (Chp 3) Level of review performed by an IRB where a protocol involves no more than minimal risk, does not include intentional deception, does not utilize vulnerable populations, and includes appropriate consent procedures
Full board review (Chp 3) Level of review performed by an IRB where a protocol involves more than minimal risk, uses intentional deception, or uses vulnerable populations
Informed Consent (Chp 3) A person's voluntary agreement, based on adequate knowledge and understanding of relevant information, to participate in research
Institutional Review Board (Chp 3) Panel of people at institutions that receive federal funds est.by Title 45, Code of Federal Regulations,Part 46,which reviews all research proposals for possible risks to research participants & to make sure that all research participants are informed...
Means & Ends (Chp 3) Means: Tools or behaviors that one employs to achieve a desired outcome Ends: Outcomes that one desires to achieve
Plagarism (Chp 3) Any time a writer does not properly cite or give credit to source wherefrom he or she is getting information
Post Hoc Hypothesis Revision (Chp 3) Revision of hypotheses once an individual receives her or his results
Privacy (Chp 3) The individual control over the extent, timing, and circumstances of sharing oneself (physically, behaviorally, or intellectually) with others
Research Participant (Chp 3&5) A living individual about whom a researcher obtains either: (1) data through intervention or interaction w/the individual; or (2) identifiable private information
Writecheck* (Chp 3)
Abstract (Chp 4&5) Accurate, self-contained, concise description of a research study
APA (American Psychological Assoc.) Style (Chp 4) Components or features of a research manuscript that dictate how the manuscript should be presented beyond the scope of actual content as dictated by the APA's style manual
Author Search (Chp 4) Database search for author's name in the author field
Bibliography* (Chp 4)
Boolean Logic (Chp 4) Form of symbolic logic created by George Boole that is the basis for electronic search engine technology
Citation (Chp 4) When an author gives credit to another individual's thoughts
Paraphrase (ing) (Chp 4) Including another author's ideas in your own words; involves summarizing or highlighting one or two important points
Primary Source (Chp 4) An original document that examines a phenomenon (poems, diaries, court records, and interviews to research results generated by experiments, surveys, ethnographies)
Quotation (Chp 4) Exact use of another author's words in your writing
Reference Page (Chp 4)
Secondary source (Chp 4) Restatements or analyses or primary sources
Subject Search (Chp 4) Database search for key terms that the author has submitted to the subject field to describe the article or book
Title Search (Chp 4) Database search of the title field for words included in the title of an article or book
Apparatus (Chp 5) Any appliance or device used in the conduction of a study
Directional Research Questions (Chp 5) When a researcher asks if there is either a positive or negative relationship or a specific significant difference between two or more variables
Discussion Section (Chp 5) Section of a research manuscript that appears after the results section to provide an interpretation of the findings, acknowledge limitations, and propose future research
Instrumentation (Chp 5)
Introduction (Chp 5) The first portion of a paper that contains an attention-getter, a link to the topic, the significance of the topic, an espousal of the credibility of the writer, a thesis statement, and a preview of the main points of the paper
Literature Review (Chp 5) Selection of available documents (unpublished or published) on a given topic that contain info from a particular point of that aid in a reader's understanding of pertinent literature prior to examining the results and discussion in a research study
Method Section (Chp 5) Section of a research manuscript that discusses participants, apparatuses, procedures, and instrumentation
Nondirectional research question (Chp 5) When a researcher asks if there is a relationship between two or more variables or a significat difference occurs between 2 or more variables
Null Hypothesis (Chp 5) Hypothesis that predicts that groups will not vary on a dependent variable or that there is not a relationship between 2 variables
One-tailed hypothesis (Chp 5) Hypothesis that predicts the specific nature of the relationship or difference
Procedures (Chp 5) The sequence of actions or instructions researcher follows while conducting a study
Research Question (Chp 5) Explicit question researches ask about variables of interest
Results Section (Chp 5) Section of a research manuscript in which a researcher presents her or his empirical findings
Two-tailed hypothesis (Chp 5) Hypothesis that predicts a significant relationship or difference, but does not indicate the specific nature of the relationship
Antecedent variable (Chp 2&6) Variable that occurs prior to the experiment that could impact the way an independent variable or dependent variable functions
Intervening Variable (Chp 6) Variable that interviews between the independent variable and the dependent variable
Likert Scale (Chp 6) Scale in which participants are presented w/a declarative statement and then asked to respond statements w/a range of possible choices: strong disagree, disagree, neither agree or disagree, agree, or strong agree
Negative Relationship (Chp 6) When a decrease in one variable corresponds to an increase in the other variable or vice versa
Positive Relationship (Chp 6) When an increase in one variable corresponds to an increase in another variable or a decrease in a variable corresponds to a decrease in another variable
Semantic differential (Chp 6) Type of research scale that asks respondents to rate their opinion on a linear scale that exists between two endpoints that have opposite meanings (Good/bad, Dirty/clean, Slow/fast, Weak/strong, Light/heavy, Moral/immoral, etc)
SPSS* (Chp 6)
Subscales* (Chp 6) A subdivision of a research measure
Nominal Variable (Chp 6 Type of Data) Qualitative variable in which categories are mutually exclusive, equivalent, and exhaustive where the categories are not numerically oriented
Ordinal Variable (Chp 6 Type of Data) Qualitative variable in which categories are mutually exclusive, equivalent, exhaustive, where the categories represent clear numerical gradients, which allows for the rank ordering of the categories
Interval Variable (Chp 6 Type of Data) Variable in which the values of the categories are classified in a logical order that represents equal distances between level within each category
Ratio Variable (Chp 6 Type of Data) Variable in which the values of the categories are classified in a logical order that represents equal distances between levels w/in each category w/the presence of an absolute zero point
Scale Variable (Chp 6 Type of Data)
Variable (Chp 6 Type of Data) Any entity that can take on different values
Dependent Variable (Chp 6 Type of Data) Measured variable in a study who changes are determined by changes in one or more independent variables
Independent Variable (Chp 6 Type of Data) (1)Variable whose numeric value determines the value of other variables. (2)Part of the research experiment that is manipulate or changed
Created by: peekok