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Food/Energy Chap 1

nutrient Substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all its essential processes.
calorie The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree.
carbohydrate Nutrient composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen that is a major source of energy.
glucose A sugar that is the major source of energy for the body's cells.
fat Energy-containing nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen. There are saturated and unsaturated types of this nutrient.
protein Nutrient that contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; Needed for tissue growth and repair and play a part in chemical reactions in the cells.
amino acid Small units that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules.
vitamin Molecules that act as helpers in a variety of chemical reactions within the body.
percent daily value A value that shows how the nutritional content of one serving of food fits into the diet of a person who consumes 2,000 Calories a day.
dietary reference intakes Guidelines that show the amounts of nutrients needed every day.
digestion The process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules.
absorption The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the blood.
saliva The fluid released when the mouth waters that plays a role in both mechanical and chemical digesting.
enzyme A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body.
epiglottis A flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.
esophagus A muscular tube that connect the mouth to the stomach.
mucus A think, slippery substance produced by the body.
peristalsis Involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep moving along in one direction through the digestive system.
stomach A j-shaped, muscular pouch located in the abdomen. It holds and digests food.
small intestine The part of the digestive system in which most chemical digestion takes place.
liver The largest organ in the body; plays a role in many body processes.
bile A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles.
gall bladder The organ that stores bile after it is produced by the liver.
pancreas A triangular shaped organ the lies between the stomach and the first part of the small intestine.
villi (villus) The finger shaped structures that cover the inner surface of the small intestine and provide a large surface area through which food is absorbed.
large intestine The last section of the digestive system where water is absorbed into the bloodstream and the remaining material is eliminated from the body.
rectum The end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into solid form before being eliminated.
anus A muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body.
Created by: jamimurray