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Chapter 20

AP European History

What was the single most powerful European political ideology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries? nationalism
List four things that make up a nation: 1. Language 2. Culture 3. History 4. Customs
What upheld that monarchies provide the basis for political unity? Congress of Vienna
List four regions that experienced nationalistic pressure during the eighteenth century: 1. Germany (pitted Austria vs. Prussia) 2. Italy (wanted unification) 3. Poland (rulers hoped to drive out Russians) 4. Hungary (wanted independence from Austria)
From which era did nineteenth century liberals derive their political ideas? Enlightenment
List five political goals of nineteenth century liberals: 1. Legal equality 2. Religious toleration 3. Freedom of press 4. Limited government regulation of business (against mercantilism) 5. Constitutional government with written constitution
What type of trade did economic liberals favor? free trade
List three major pillars of nineteenth century conservatism: 1. Legitimate monarchs 2. Landed aristocracies 3. Established churches
Whose beliefs epitomized conservatism? Metternich
What were Burschenschaften? German student associations/clubs that advocated for a united Germany
What ended the Burschenschaften? Carlsbad Decrees
What led Parliament to suspend Habeas Corpus laws and laws against seditious gatherings? unruly mass meeting at Spa Fields near London
What prevented radical leaders from agitating and gave authorities new powers? Six Acts
What kind of monarch did Louis XVIII become? constitutional monarch
List the four major powers of the Congress of Vienna: 1. Great Britain 2. Austria 3. Prussia 4. Russia
What referred to the new informal arrangement for resolving foreign policy issues? The Concert of Europe
Who was placed on the Spanish throne after the downfall of Napoleon? Ferdinand VII (Bourbon)
What permitted governments to enter into countries experiencing revolution to restore order? Protocol of Troppau
Which British foreign minister supported the American Monroe Doctrine in 1823? George Canning
Which war did George Canning bring to a successful conclusion? War of Jenkin's Ear
What treaty demanded the recognition of Greek Independence by the Turks? Treaty of London
What three countries were allowed to decide the future of Greece in the Treaty of Adrianople? Britain, France, Russia
Who became the first king of the new Greek kingdom? Otto I
Where did Otto I come from? Bavaria
Which Serbian leader led a guerrilla war against the Ottoman Empire from 1804 to 1813? Kara George
Which country assumed the role as protector of Serbia? Russia
Which wars sparked movements for independence from European domination throughout Latin America? wars of the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars
Which tsar suppressed liberalism and nationalism in Russia? Alexander I
Which of the following events illustrated to Russian soldiers how backward and politically stifled their own nation remained? being exposed to ideas of the French Revolution and the Enlightenment
Which Russian officer advocated representative government and the abolition of serfdom? Pestel
Which secret society was more moderate and favored constitutional monarchy and the abolition of serfdom? Northern Society
Who succeeded Tsar Alexander I? Nicholas I
What was the first Russian rebellion that had specific political goals? Decembrist Revolt
Who stated,"there is no doubt that serfdom, in its present form, is a flagrant evil which everyone realizes, yet to attempt to remedy it now would be, of course, an evil more disastrous"? Nicholas I
Which European monarch was king of Poland? Nicholas I and Alexander I
Who restored the rule of primogeniture in France? Charles X (also made fund to repay emigres)
List four things that the Four Ordinances accomplished: 1. Restricted freedom of press 2. Dissolved Chamber of Deputies 3. Limited franchise to wealthiest people 4. Called for new elections
Which country supported the independence of Latin America to secure its economic interests? Britain
The July Ordinances were repressive decrees issued by: Charles X of France
Metternich may have been a brilliant statesman, but he was particularly misguided in? Thinking he could stop forces of nationalism and liberalism
The chief purpose of the Congress of Vienna was to: restore the Old Regime as far as possible
In 1820, revolutionaries overthrew the governments of which two states? Spain and Naples
The Burschenschaften was: students societies in Germany who wanted to spread German nationalism
The major supports of post-Napoleonic conservatism were: Legitimate monarchs, landed aristocrats, and the leaders of the established religions
The principle of legitimacy at the Congress of Vienna meant the: restoration of monarchs previously dethroned by Napoleon
What became known as the "Eastern Question" in European affairs was actually a reflection of the: weakness of the Ottoman Empire
The Decembrist Revolt of 1825: was the first rebellion in modern Russian history whose instigators had specific political goals
Which of the following was the key aim of the British Corn Laws in the early 1800's? to protect the interests of British grain producers from foreign imports
All of the following are true of the Romantic movement in the early nineteenth century EXCEPT: it accepted the basic ideals of the Enlightenment philosophes
Following the death of Alexander I in 1825, Russia under Nicholas I became: a police state due to Nicholas's fear of revolution
Generally, the revolutions of 1848 resulted in: the end of the age of romantic revolution
The foremost social group embracing liberalism was made up by: the industrial middle class
The Frankfurt Assembly failed because: it did not resolve the contradictions between liberalism and nationalism in the building of a German state
The revolution of 1848 in France resulted in: an authoritarian regime under Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Tsar Nicholas I ruled Russia with a policy of: religious toleration and political liberties
The novelty of the "Concert of Europe" system was its recognition that? war had become too dangerous a luxury for Europe to afford
The main flaw of the Congress of Vienna settlement was that it: refused to recognize the strength of nationalism and French revolutionary values and ideals
The most important symbol of romanticism became the: isolated individual in heroic struggle
Count Henri de Saint-Simon believed that: the key to progress was proper social organization
The Revolution of 1830 in France had no influence over the revolution in Poland, but: benefited the upper middle class
The Protocol of Troppau: permitted stable governments' intervention into countries experiencing revolution for the purpose of restoring order
King Louis-Philippe was called France's bourgeois monarch for all the following EXCEPT: he favored the extension of political power to the working class
Utopian socialism was built upon the idea that: cooperative living might create a better environment for people
I was the chief diplomat at the Congress of Vienna who repressed the liberal and nationalist feelings in my own country of Austria Clemens von Metternich
I was the British Foreign Minister at the Congress of Vienna. I despised people like Robespierre and Napoleon who disrupted the balance of power in Europe. Lord Castlerigh
An agreement between five major countries, who would meet annually, in order to preserve the balance of power in nineteenth century Europe and to join together to put down revolutionary movements that upset this balance. Concert of Europe
Passed in 1815 and 1828 and repealed in 1846, they placed a sliding tariff on imported wheat, which in turn, hurt the interests of businessman and caused much unrest in nineteenth century England Corn Laws
The most fanatical enemies of the Revolution, who launched the "White Terror" against the supporters of Napoleon. Ultra-Royalists
I was the British writer who rued that monarchical stability and noble privilege were inseparable and were necessary components of a strong society. Edmund Burke
The nineteenth century movement of mostly industrial workers, fought for universal manhood suffrage, annual elections, secret ballots, and salaries for members of Parliament. chartism
A successful nineteenth century rebellion against the French monarchy over the discontent of the people towards Charles X, who failed to uphold the principles promulgated in the Charter of 1814. The Revolution of 1830
Repressive legislation passed in response to the revolutionary stirrings in nineteenth century Europe that banned demonstrations, suspended the writ of habeas corpus and restricted the press. Six Acts
A secret society of Italian Revolutionaries literally called "Charcoal Burners" who fought against the monarch placed on the throne by Austrians. Carbonari
I was the Russian tsar who obtained the West of Poland in the settlement of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and used it as a "buffer zone" to the West. Alexander I
Passed by Louis XVIII, it recognized equality before the law, accepted the Napoleonic Code, granted freedom of the press and established The Chamber of Deputies and Peers. Charter of 1814
This redistributed the voting in England by getting rid of "pocket" and "rotten" boroughs and in turn, giving more votes to industrial towns and to the middle class Reform Bill of 1832
I was one of the key players at the Congress of Vienna, who through some behind the scenes negotiations, made sure that France became a major participant at this meeting. Lord Talleyrand
Five decrees passed in France that dissolved the newly elected Chamber of Deputies, muzzled the press and increased the amount of political power in the hands of the wealthiest property holders. July Ordinances
I made the close connection between the development of German nationalism and the reverence for a strong state that characterized some German liberal thought. George Hegel
Nationalists challenged political status quo in all of the following EXCEPT: Great Britain
Economic liberals favored: free trade
Liberalism and nationalism posed greatest threat to: Austria
Decembrist Revolt was led by: junior officers
Nicholas I saw serfdom as: great evil, too dangerous to reform
In French elections, liberals: won stunning victory
Concert of Europe: arrangement for resolving foreign issues
Real goal of the nineteenth century political liberals: political reform based on private property
Important complement to liberalism nationalism
Great Reform Bill: expanded size of English electorate
Alexander I's reign: liberal and conservative
Protector of Serbia: Russia
Metternich's beliefs epitomized: conservatism
Four ordinances by Charles X did NOT put end to elections
Great Reform Bill passed because: king threatened the House of Lords
Under Metternich, Austria moved to revolutions in: Spain and Italy
Power who lost territory and prestige in Greek Revolution: Ottomans
L'Ouverture led successful revolt in: Haiti
Wars of Independence in South America led by: Creoles
Created by: Caralicia