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Chapter 18 Vocabulary

amino acid building block of protein
carbohydrate nutrient that is usually the body's main source of energy
chemical digestion occurs when enzymes and other chemicals break down large food molecules into smaller ones
chyme liquid product of digestion
digestion mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into small molecules that cells can absorb and use
enzyme a type of protein that regulates nearly all chemical reactions in cells; a type of protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body without being changed or used up itself
fat nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs, and helps the body absorb vitamins
food group group of foods - such as bread, cereal, rice, and pasta - containing the same type of nutrients
mechanical digestion breakdown of food through chewing, mixing, and churning
mineral inorganic nutrient that regulates many chemical reactions in the body
nutrient substance in foods - proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water - that provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and repair
peristalsis waves of muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract
protein large molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur and is made up of amino acids; used by the body for growth and for replacement and repair of body cells
villi fingerlike projections covering the wall of the small intestine that increase the surface area for food absorption
vitamin water-soluable or fat-soluable organic nutrient needed in small quantities for growth, for preventing some diseases, and for regulating body functions
Created by: jrobertson1