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Erosion movement of rocks particles by wind, water, ice or gravity
mechanical weathering rock is physically broken insto smaller pieces
mechanical weathering(2) breaks rock into pieces by freezing and thawing, heating and cooling, growth of plants, actions of animals, and abrasions
abrasion grinding away of rock by rock particles carried by water, ice, wind, or gravity.
ice wedging water expands when it freezes causing rocks to crack
chemical weathering process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
agents of chemical weathering water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, living organims, and acid rain
water most important agent of chemical weathering
oxygen the gas in air is an important part of chemical weathering
rust product of oxidation
Rust(2) makes rocks soft and crumbly, gives it a red/brown color
carbon dioxide a gas found in air, carbon dioxide, causes chemical weathering
weak acid carbonic acid
carbonic acid weathers marble and limestone
living organisms roots push into cracks in the rock
lichens plantlike organisms that grow on rock
acid rain polllution in the air with sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen compunds
acid rain(2) very rapid chemical weathering
rate at which weathering occurs type of rock and climate
permeable material is full of tiny, connected air spaces taht allow water to seep through it
climate average weather conditions in an area
wet climates both chemical and mechanical weathering occur fast
chemical reactions faster at higher temperatures
granite very hard rock
soil loose, weathered materialon earth's surface
soil(2) forms as rock is broken down by weathering and mixes with other materials on the surface
bedrock solid layer of rock beneath the soil
soil is a mixture of rock particles, minerals, decayed organic material, air and water
humus decayed organic material in soil
humus (2) forms as plant and animal remains decay
humus(3) rich in nitrogen
soil texture important for plant growth
loam soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt
soil horizon layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it
A horizon made up of topsoil
top soil a crumbly, dark brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals
B horizon subsoil
subsoil consists of clay and other particles washed down from the A horizon, littel humus
C horizon contains only partly wetahered rock
C horizon (2) bedrock
B Horizon develops as rainwater washes clay and minerals from the other horizons
C horizon forms as bedrock weathers and rock breaks up into soil particles
A horizon develops from the C horizon when plant roots weather the rock
Gravel largest soil particle
clay smallest soil particle
air and water make up the major portion of loam
A horizon consists of topsoil with humus
B horizon consists of subsoil
C horizon consists of rock fragments
bacteria decomposers taht break down animal and plant remains and wasts
fungi are decomposers that send out long, rootlike threads that digest plant remains
earthworms break up hard, compacted soil
an area's climate and plant life determine what type of soil froms from bedrock
Created by: Sandy6858