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Thalamic Nuclei

Thalamic Nuclei, as presented in NBio at Stanford

Anterior Anterior Diffuse projection mammillary bodies, hippocampus cingulate gyrus memory formation
Dorsal medial (DM) Medial nuclear Diffuse projection olfactory cortex, amygdala hypothalamus, cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex emotional behavior
Centromedian (CM) Intralaminar - globus pallidus (inhibitory) caudate and putamen modulation of basal ganglia
Other IL nuclei Intralaminar Diffuse projection pontine and mesencephalic reticular formation diffuse projections to frontal cortex and other thalamic nuclei thalamic portion of ascending reticular activation system
Ventral anterior (VA) Lateral nuclear Relay Basal Ganglia (GPi, SNr) Primary, Pre and Supplementary motor cortex (areas 4 & 6) motor relay. activation facilitates movement
Ventral lateral (VL) Lateral nuclear Relay Basal Ganglia (GPi, SNr) & Cerebellum Primary, Pre and Supplementary motor cortex (areas 4 & 6) motor relay. activation facilitates movement
Ventral posterolateral (VPL) Lateral nuclear Relay cuneate, gracile nuclei, marginal zone and substantia gelatinosa somatosensory cortex (areas 1,2,3) somatosensory relay for body, relays info from ALS and DCML tracts
Ventral posteromedial (VPM) Lateral nuclear Relay spinal and principal nuclei of V, nucleus solitarius somatosensory cortex (areas 1,2,3), taste cortex (area 43) somatosensory relay for face, relays sensory info (from trigeminothalamic tract) and taste info
Lateral dorsal (LD) and Lateral posterior (LP) Lateral nuclear Diffuse projection sensory cortex, other thalamic nuclei frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex sensory and emotional info integration
LGN Lateral nuclear Relay retina (60% feedback from cortex) visual cortex (area 17), cuneate and lingual gyri via optic radiations visual relay
MGN Lateral nuclear Relay inferior colliculus (via brachium of the inferior colliculus) auditory cortex (area 41), via auditory radiations auditory relay
Pulvinar Lateral nuclear Diffuse projection reciprocal input from all output areas, superior colliculus, primary visual cortex parietal and temporal association areas integration of sensory information, modulation of spatial attention (?)
Reticular Reticular Diffuse projection, but very different sees copies ("collaterals") of all excitatory thalamocortical & corticothalamic projections inhibitory output to thalamic nuclei from which input was received (only thalamic nucleus w/o projection to cortex & w/ inhibitory output) regulate flow of info from thalamus to cortex, part of ascending reticular activating system, modulation of arousal & sleep, generation of oscillations (?)
Created by: grapealope