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LA History

LAH Key Concepts for Chapter 7- Louisiana's Spanish Colony Era

What was the Treaty of Fountainbleau? In November 1762 in the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau, France handed over Louisiana and the Isle of Orleans to Spain in order to "sweeten the bitter medicine of Spanish defeat and to persuade them not to fight on" against the British.
Why did France want to keep the treaty secret? France feared that Louisiana would become British. As a result, France sought to preempt any actions that Britain would undertake if it became known that Louisiana no longer enjoyed French protection before the Spanish were able to occupy and defend it.
Why did Spain want Louisiana? (slide 2) . If Britain had known Louisiana had belonged to Spain, they may have demanded the colony in the war settlement
What did Spain want Louisiana? Louisiana would serve as a buffer to keep the British away from Spanish Silver mines in northern Mexico, and control of the Mississippi River offered protection.
Why were the Acadians exiled from France? During the French and Indian War, Britain took over Nova Scotia, they were told to become loyal British subjects, and they refused.
When did the Acadians arrive in Louisiana? 1764
Where did the first group of Acadian settlers live? They settled in the Prairie region of the Attakapa region where they were able to raise their livestock. Page 155
Why were the colonists growing restless in Louisiana? They did not have adequate supplies to operate the colony, there were not enough troops to keep order, and they felt betrayed by King Louis XV when they found out about the transfer of the colony to Spain
How long did the transfer between France and Spain control of Louisiana take? 2 years
Who was the governor of Louisiana during the transfer? Jean-Jacques-Blaise d’Abbadie
Who tried to reason with the King to keep Louisiana, and who helped him? Jean Milhet (wealthy merchant) and Bienville (86)
Who was the first Spanish governor of Louisiana? Who was the first Spanish governor of Louisiana? Antonio de Ulloa
What happened when the Spanish finally took control of Louisiana? The colonists were worried they would be forced to follow Spanish culture, trade laws were changed, and formal parties stopped
Why didn’t Ulloa take immediate control of Louisiana? He didn’t have an adequate number of troops; he worked with the French officials to conduct the business of the colony
What were the trade Spanish trade laws and how did this affect Louisiana? The colony could only trade with Spanish ports, they were used to trading with the French ports in the Caribbean, and illegal trade with the British colonies
Why did the colonists believe Louisiana was still under French control? Because Ulloa did not officially take control of the colony when he arrived What did Ulloa do to help relieve the tensions of the colonists?
What did Ulloa do to help relieve the tensions of the colonists? He inspected the forts, communicated with the British commander in West Florida, and he gave gifts to the Indians to maintain good relations
Why didn’t the French want to take Louisiana back? King Louis XV did not want to offend the King of Spain and Louisiana had been an expensive burden to France
Explain the rebellion of the Louisiana colonists against Ulloa? Merchants and members of the Superior Council gathered in New Orleans to convince Ulloa to give up in Louisiana. Ulloa and his wife left Louisiana in fear of their lives.
Who replaced Ulloa and how was he different? Alejandro O’Reilly He was forceful and he came with 3,000 soldiers and 24 ships
Why did the colonists have misconceptions about O’Reilly’s intentions? He listened to their complaints without reprimanded them
How did O’Reilly show the colony was under Spain’s control and how did he try to unite French and Spanish traditions? He fired cannons and raised the Spanish flag, he held a Catholic mass to remind them of their religious connections and the Spanish culture.
Why was O’Reilly called “Bloody O’Reilly”? He sentenced the rebels to death or to prison for treason against Spanish authority
What was the name of the organization that replaced the French Superior Council? The Spanish Cabildo
Explain how people became members of the Spanish Cabildo. First O’Reilly appointed the members, then the positions were bought
What were some positive accomplishments O’Reilly had on Louisiana? He set up trade ports with Cuba, examined the forts, set prices on goods and foods that the merchants could charge, abolished Indian slavery, set up census, and surveyed land for boundaries of ownership
Who replaced O’Reilly? Luis de Unzaga
How was Unzaga able to win over the French colonists? He allowed British merchants to set up trading spots in New Orleans, he appointed French colonists to government positions, he married a French girl, (the first marriage between Spanish officials and French colonists)
How did Unzaga strengthen his position with the French and with the Indians? he repaired the forts, brought in more soldiers, and gave the Indians firearms in case they were needed against the British
Why did the Islenos come to Louisiana? Louisiana needed loyal Spanish colonists and the more soldiers. They were given land, houses, cattle, poultry, farm tools and food
How did Spain support the American colonies in the American Revolution? They sent ammunition, weapons, and other supplies from New Orleans
Who was governor of Louisiana during the American Revolution? Bernardo de Galvez
Who directed the aid from Louisiana to the American colonies? Oliver Pollock and George Rogers Clark (leader on the frontier for the colonists)
Why was taking New Orleans important to the British? If they took control of New Orleans, then they could control the Mississippi River and the forts along the upper river
Who were members of the state militia? Boys 16 – 65 wealthy planters and merchants, Islenos, Acadians, Germans, rural farmers, free people of color; slaves and Choctaw served as scouts
Name in order with dates the British forts captured by Galvez? Fort Bute – Manchac – September 7, 1779 Fort New Richmond – Baton Rouge – September 21, 1779 Fort Panmure – Natchez surrendered – September 21, 1779 Fort Mobile – Mobile – October, 1780 Fort George – Pensacola – May 8 -10, 1781
How did the Treaty of Paris 1783 affect Spain? They received all of Florida
What cities were connected by the Camino Real (Road of the King) and what was its purpose? Natchitoches, New Orleans, St. Louis, and San Antonio (Hwy 90 today)To bring longhorns to New Orleans
Who is the governor of Louisiana after the American Revolution? Esteban Rodriguez Miro
Why did the American settlers pose a threat to Spain? America would grow stronger if the colonists began settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
Explain Miro’s relationship with the Native Americans? He kept trade with them, and he tried to encourage them to stop the Americans from taking their lands
What methods did Miro use to make the American colonists loyal Spanish colonists? If they took an allegiance to Spain, they were given land grants, they were expected to become Catholic, but not required to, they could not worship in public, and they were placed in organized communities with other Spanish subjects
Why was the fire of 1788 devastating to New Orleans? 856 of 1100 buildings were burned. The fire happened on Good Friday and the priest refused to ring the bell to alert the public
Who was Louisiana’s next Spanish governor? Francisco Luis Hector, Baron de Carondelet
How did Carondelet improve Louisiana’s economy? Free trade with the United States, ships could enter the port of New Orleans
Why was the French Revolution in France a concern for Carondelet? Many colonists were French and they were attracted to the idea of freedom
What did Carondelet do to stop a French revolt in Louisiana? He sought support from the Indian tribes, established a police force, and added street lights
Why did some French noblemen come to Louisiana? People who remained loyal to King Louis XV were being sought and beheaded or imprisoned, they came to Louisiana to escape
How did the French Revolution inspire the slaves? They planned an uprising hoping for sympathy from supporters for freedom
Why did the American colonists need to have freedom on the Mississippi River? They could not get their crops to a port
What were the results of Pinckney’s Treaty in 1795? The American farmers could deposit or store their goods in warehouses before loading them onto ships. It also set the boundary of Louisiana and the United States at the 31st parallel
How did French culture remain dominant in Louisiana? They continued formal parties with French wine and French dancing. Men gathered in coffee houses playing cards after mass on Sundays. The priests and nuns were allowed to stay in the colony to continue their work
Who improved the production of sugar cane? Etienne de Bore’
Why did Carondelet stop importing slaves form the Caribbean? The planters in Louisiana were afraid of another revolt like the one in Haiti
What was the Treaty of Indefonso 1800? A secret treaty giving Louisiana back to France
Created by: NoelleBordelon