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BBC Pharm

Ch. 8 Cephalosphorins

describe the difference between cephalosporins and penicillins in terms of how they work cephs have similar cell wall inhibition activity as penicillins, but are inherently more resistant to baeta lactamases than penicillins because of a slight difference in structure.
what bugs are particularly sensitive to first generation cephalosporins? "Peck": proteus, E.Coli, Klebsiella, PLUS gram positives
what bugs are particularly sensitive to the second generation cephalosporins? "HenPeck": Haemophilus influenzae, Enterobacter Aerogenes, Neisseria, Proteus, E.Coli, Klebsiella
what bugs are particularly sensitive to third generation cephalosporins? "HenPeckPlus": haemophilus influenzae, Enterobacter Aerogenes, Neisseria, Proteus, E.Coli, Klebsiella, PLUS Enterics (intestinal bacteria)
what bugs are particularly sensitive to fourth generation cephalosporins? pseudomonas
what bugs are particulary sensitive to fifth generation cephalosporins? MRSA Plus complicated mixed gram positive and gram negative infections
as you go from the first to the fifth generation of cephalosporins, what happens to the ability to fight gram negative organisms? it increases
name a first generation cephalosporin and what it is used for Cefozalin- one of the two drugs of choice for skin infections, including cellulitis. It has excellent penetration into bone.
list the second generation cephalosporins CefaMANdole, CeFOXitin, CeFURoximine, CefoTETan (many are all about gender related issues)
what is the significance of Fefamandole? it is a second generation cephalosporin no longer used in the US today, but it is used in many places around the world. it causes a disulfuram-like reaction when ingested with alcohol
briefly describe the metabolism of alcohol ethanol goes to acetaldehyde via alcohol dehydrogenase, acetaldehyde goes to acetate via acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
why are asians particularly susceptible to non-drug induced disulfuram-like reactions? because they lack one of the isoenzymes of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
list some drugs which cuase disulfiram like reactions when ingested with alcohol metronidazole, chloramphenicol, isoniazid, nitrofurantoin, sulfamethaxazole, sulfisoxazole,cefoperazone, cefotetan, cefamandole, griseofulvin, disulfuram, nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, glyburide, glipizide, tolazamide,
what is unique about cefuroxime? it crosses the blood brain barrier
what is unique about cefoxitin it's especially active against anerobes, so it is often used in treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease, and intra-abdominal infections
list the third generation cephalosporins and why they are important cefTAzidime, cefoTAxime, cefTRIAxone, often used for tough organisms or infections, so they have TOUHG ASSASSINS
what is special about ceftriaxone? commonly used in infected patients who also have renal problems; this is because ceftriaxone, unlike other cephalosporins, is not renally excreted. instead, it is excreted with the bile.
what third generation cephalosporin is active against pseudomonas aeruginosa? ceftazidime
what is special about the fourth generation cephalosporins and what are they/ they are specifically effective agianst pseudomonas aeruginosa. they include cefepime and cefpirome
what is the fifth generation cephalosporin? ceftaroline
Created by: aferdo01