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Skeleton

Classification & Structure of Bones & Cartilages

QuestionAnswer
an embryos skeleton is predominantly composed of hyaline cartilage
an adult skeleton most of he cartilage is replaced by rigid bone
where is cartilage located (isolated areas); bridge of the nose, the larynx, trachea, joints & parts of the rib cage
bones store lipis & many minerals
red marrow cabities of bones provide a site for heatopoiesis ( blood cell formation)
axial skeleton bones that lie around the body's center of gravity
appendicular skeleton bones of the libs, or appendages
what is the purpose of bone markings it reveals where bones form joints w. other bones, where muscles, tendons, & ligaments were attached & where blood vessels & nerves passed
name the categories of bone markings projections, or processes that grow out from the bone (serve as sites of muscle attachment or help form joints) & depressions or cavities (indentations or opening sin the bone that often serve as condults for nerves & blood cessels
tuberosity large rounded projection; may be roughened
an embryos skeleton is predominantly composed of hyaline cartilage
an adult skeleton most of he cartilage is replaced by rigid bone
where is cartilage located (isolated areas); bridge of the nose, the larynx, trachea, joints & parts of the rib cage
bones store lipis & many minerals
red marrow cabities of bones provide a site for heatopoiesis ( blood cell formation)
axial skeleton bones that lie around the body's center of gravity
appendicular skeleton bones of the libs, or appendages
what is the purpose of bone markings it reveals where bones form joints w. other bones, where muscles, tendons, & ligaments were attached & where blood vessels & nerves passed
name the categories of bone markings projections, or processes that grow out from the bone (serve as sites of muscle attachment or help form joints) & depressions or cavities (indentations or opening sin the bone that often serve as condults for nerves & blood cessels
tuberosity large rounded projection; may be roughened
crest narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
trochanter very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (femur)
line narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest
tubercle small rounded projection or process
epicondyle raised area on or above a condyle
spine sharp, slender, often pointed projection
process prominence or projection
head vony expansion carried on a narrow neck
facet smooth, nearly flat articular surface
condyle rounded articular projection
ramus armlike bar of bone
sinus space within a bone, filled w air & lined w mucous membrane
meatus (auditory) canal-like passageway
fossa shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
groove furrow
fissure narrrow, slitlike opening
foramen round or oval opening through a bone
how many bones are in the human body 206
name the two basic kinds of osseous tissue that differ in their texture compact bone (looks smooth & homogeneous) & spongy (cancellous bone; composed of small trabeculae (bars) of bone & lots of open space)
name the 4 classifications of bones long, short, flat & irregular bones
long bones (femur) consist of a shaft w. heads @ either end;; composed predominantly of compact bone
short bones cube shaped; contain more spongy bone than compact bone (tarsals & carpals)
flat bones generaly thin, w. 2 waferlike layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between (bones of the skull)
irregular bones vertebrae (bones that don't fall into a categorie)
sesamoid bones special types of short bones formed in tendons (patellas)
wormian or sutural bones tine bones between cranial bones
articular cartilage covers the epiphyseal surface in place of the periosteum
epiphyseal plate thin area of yaline cartilage that provides for longitudinal growth of the bone during youth
epiphyseal lines when the long bone has stopped growing
yellow marrow storage region for adipose tissue
red marrow forming blood cells
endosteum lining the shaft
inorganic matters of the bone calcium salts deposited in its groud substance; gives bone its hardness
organic elements collagen fibers; causes its flexibility
central (haversian) canal runs parallel to the long axis of the bone & caries blood vessels, nerves & lymph vessels throug the bony matrix
osteocytes (mature bone cells)
lacunae chambers
canaliculi tiny canals radiating outward from a central canal to the lacunae of the first lamella & then from lamella to lamella
articular cartilages cover the bone ends @ moveable joints
costal cartilages found connecting the ribs to the sternum (breastbone)
laryngeal cartilages largely construct the larynx
tracheal & bronchial cartilages reinforce other passageways of the respiratory system
nasal cartilages support the external nose
intervertebral discs separate & cushion bone sof the spine (vertebrae)
the skull is composed of 2 sets of bones name them & describe them cranium (enclose & protect the fragile brain tissue) facial bones (present the eyes ina n anterior position & form the base for the facial muscles
name the 2 major areas for the cranium to be divided into the cranial vault (calvaria) forms the superior lateral & posterior walls of skull & cranial floor or base- forming thw skull bottom
name the cranial floor's 3 distinct concavties anterior, middle & posterior cranial fossae
frontal anterior portion of cranium; forms forehead, superior part of orbit & floor of anterior cranial fosa
supraorbtal foramen (notch) opening above each orbit allowing blood vessels & nerves to pass
glabella smooth area between the eyes
parietal posterolateral to the frontal bone, forming sides of cranium
sagittal suture midline articulation point of the 2 parietal bones
coronal suture point of articulation of parietals w. frontal bone
temporal inferior to parietal bone on lateral skull
name the 4 divisions of the temporals squamous; tympanic; mastoid & petrous
squamous region abuts the parietals
tympanic region surrounds the external ear opening
mastoid region area posterior to the ear
petrous region forms the lateral region of the skull base
squamosal suture point of articulation of the temporal bone w. the parietal bone
zygomatic process bridgelike projection joining the zygomatic bone (cheekbone) anteriorly.
mandibular fossa rounded depression on the inferior surface of the zygomatic process (anterior to the ear); forms the socket for the mandibular condyle, the poitn where the mandible (lower jaw) joins th ecranium
external auditory meatus canal leading to eardrum & middle ear
styloid proces needlelike projectio inferior to external auditory meatus; attachment point for muscles & ligaments of the neck.
mastoid process rough projection inferior & posterior to external auditory meatus
stylomastoid foramen tiny opeing between the mastoid & styloid processes through wich cranial nerve VII leaves the cranium
jugular foramen opeing medial to the styloid process
occipital forms floor & back wall; joins sphenoid bone anteriorly via its narrow basioccipital region
lambdoid suture site of articulation of occipital bone & parietal bones
foramen magnum large opeining in base of occipital, which allows the spianl cord to join with the brain
occipital condyles rounded projections lateral to the foramen magnum that articulate w. the first cervicalvertebra
hypoglossal canal opening medial & superior to the occipital condyle through the hypoglossal nerve passes
sphenoid bat-shaped bone forming the anterior plateau of the middle cranial fossa cross the width of the skull
mandible lower jawbone
body horizontal portion; forms the chin
ramus vertical extension of the body on either side
mandibular condyle articulation oint of the mandible w. the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone
coronoid process jutting anterior portion of the ramus;
angle posterior point @ which ramus meets the body
alveolar margin superior margin of mandible; contains sockets in which the teeth lie
mandibular symphysis anterior median depression indicating point of mandibular fusion
maxillae 2 bones fused in a median suture; form the upper jawbone & part of the orbits
alveolar margin inferior margin containing sockets w. teeth
palatine processes form the anterior hard palate
infraorbital foramen opening under the orbit carrying the infraorbital nerves & blood vessels to the nasal region
incisive fossa large bilateral opeining located posterior to the central incisor tooth of the maxilla & piercing hte hard palate
palatine paired bones posterior to the palatine processes; form posterior hard palate & part of the orbit
zygomatic lateral to the maxilla; forms the portion of th face comonly called th echeekbone, & forms part of the lateral orbit
list the vertebra column (blank)
cervical curvature (concave) 2nd primary; consists of 7 vertebrae (C1-C7)
Created by: Brina on 2003-10-06



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